Gary Pavela, director of academic integrity at Syracuse University, had a simple answer to the question, Do honor codes promote greater academic integrity on college campuses. Yes.
At a talk today sponsored by the Ethics Center, Pavela shared his experiences developing the first "modified honor code" at the University of Maryland in 1991. As background, Pavela described traditional honor codes at schools like the University of Virginia and the service academies, where the punishment for any violation is expulsion. Students must sign an honor pledge, and they are obligated to report their classmates if they see cheating.
According to Pavela, traditional codes have a clear affect on cheating, even though "the PR is sometimes better than the reality." For example, honor courts at traditional honor code schools may be reluctant to convict students who are referred to them because they have only one choice of sanction--expulsion. Also, he reported, "students don't turn each other in."
Pavela and the group of students he worked with at Maryland wondered if they could get the same effect by adopting the elements of traditional codes that actually worked. The Maryland code included:
§Serious penalties but not automatic expulsion
These elements work together in a modified code. For example, if a student is caught cheating, he or she receives an XF in the class. This grade is coded on the transcript, "failure due to academic dishonesty." The student cannot change the F grade, but he or she can get the X removed by taking an academic integrity seminar.
The modified code developed at Maryland and later adopted at many other schools does have an impact on the ethical culture of the school, Pavela said. He cited the work of Donald McCabe, who has been studying academic integrity since 1990. McCabe found there was less cheating at modified honor code schools than at schools with no code at all, although there was more cheating than at traditional honor code schools.
Pavela stressed that honor codes can be a source of pride for students, and that schools that adopt them begin to see results in two to three years.
Pavela's talk was part of a multi-year effort at Santa Clara University to develop an honor code system.
Responding in the Huffington Post to a claim by the CTO of a large technology company that new sensor-enabled technologies will be like "your best friend," Center Internet Ethics Program Manager Irina Raicu writes:
The interview with the CTO taught me this: Technology will at best anticipate only some of your needs, and contextually-aware devices will not be like your best friend (unless you have some very strange and annoying friends). It also reminded me that making hyperbolic claims about technology serves to highlight the limitations of dreamed-of devices, rather than their strengths.
Gary Pavela, director of academic integrity at Syracuse University, speaks March 8 at noon in the Weigand Center, Santa Clara University, on honor codes.
Since last year, SCU students have been engaged in a dialog, which they hope will result in the adoption of a code at Santa Clara. Ethics Center Hackworth Fellow Aven Satre-Meloy has spearheaded the effort this year.
Pavela will be speaking about how SCU can adopt an honor code; what kind of code may make the most sense to adopt; and how to address such concerns related to honor codes like the academic freedom of faculty; faculty worries about time spent involved in cumbersome disciplinary procedures; and faculty worries over reporting requirements.
The Association for Practical and Professional Ethics is sponsoring an expanded Ethics Center Colloquium organized by Kirk Hanson, Aine Donovan, and Noah Pickus, executive directors of the ethics centers at Santa Clara University, Dartmouth College, and Duke University. The colloquium will feature discussions of the mission, programs, structure, funding, and strategic challenges of centers, as well as potential cooperative relationships.
Jay Mumford, vice president of the Ethisphere Institute, talks about three generations of ethics codes and how corporate codes have changed form over time. He is interviewed by Center Executive Director Kirk O. Hanson.
Brian Green is the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics' new assistant director of campus ethics programs. His responsibilities include guest lecturing on ethics in various campus courses, reviewing and evaluating the Hackworth grant program, researching various topics in ethics including Catholic teaching on conscience, assisting coordinating campus ethics speakers, and working with the Hackworth and Environmental Ethics Fellows. He is also an adjunct professor teaching ethics in the Graduate School of Engineering.
Brian's background includes doctoral and master's degrees in ethics and social theory from the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley. His undergraduate degree is from the University of California, Davis, in genetics. Between college and graduate school he served for two years in the Jesuit Volunteers International teaching high school in the Marshall Islands. His research interests include human nature and ethics, Catholic natural law, ethics of technology, and various aspects of the impact of technology and engineering on human life.
Ken Baylor, an expert on cybersecurity, outlines the dangers facing companies from security breaches. Baylor, the vice president for research at NSS, talks with Center Executive Director Kirk O. Hanson about some of the ethical issues that arise as more and more companies are subjected to cyber attacks.
The Ethics Center welcomes Carol Mayer Marshall, John Smedley, and Don Watters to its Advisory Board.
Mayer Marshall is a community activist with extensive government and private sector experience. She was the third highest ranking woman in the Nixon Administration. She also served as Congressional relations director, director of VISTA (the domestic Peace Corps), and superintendent of the San Francisco Mint. A member of the California Bar, she established a consulting firm for nonprofits. In addition to the Ethics Center's board, she serves on many nonprofit boards.
Smedley is president of Sony Online Entertainment LLC, where he oversees the company's overall vision and growth. He has more than a decade of experience experience in the interactive entertainment industry, including positions with ATG, Knight Technologies and five years with Sony Online Entertainment as Director of Development. He was also instrumental in the creation and development of the original, groundbreaking EverQuest® (EQ), and was co-founder of Verant Interactive Inc., which became Sony Online Entertainment after it was purchased by Sony Pictures Entertainment in 2000.
Watters is a director emeritus of McKinsey & Company, the global management consulting firm. He served primarily private sector clients in nearly 20 different industries on issues of strategy, organization and operations. In the late 1980’s, he led the team that opened McKinsey’s Silicon Valley Office. His board memberships have included: Ballet San Jose Silicon Valley, the Tech Museum, American Leadership Forum Silicon Valley (Chair), American Leadership Forum National (Chair), United Way of Silicon Valley (Chair) and the Bay Area Garden Railway Society (President).
As someone who has served on a school board, city council, board of supervisors, and in the state assembly and senate, Joe Simitian has the experience to comment on how various levels of government can work together more effectively.
At a recent meeting of the Center's Public Sector Forum, Simitian offered some guiding principles for local officials working with the state legislature. He argued that empathy is an important characteristic for politicians as it allows them to imagine the constraints and difficulties of another official's position.