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Ethical Issues in the Online World

Welcome to the blog of the Internet Ethics program at the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, Santa Clara University. Program Director Irina Raicu will be joined by various guests in discussing the ethical issues that arise continuously on the Internet; we hope to host a robust conversation about them, and we look forward to your comments.

  •  A New Ethics Case Study

    Friday, Apr. 24, 2015
    A Google receptionist works at the front desk in the company's office in this Oct. 2, 2006, file photo. (AP Photo/Mark Lennihan, File)

    In October 2014, Google inaugurated a Transparency Report detailing its implementation of the European court decision generally (though mistakenly) described as being about “the right to be forgotten.” To date, according to the report, Google has received more than 244,000 requests for removals of URLs from certain searches involvijng names of EU residents. Aside from such numbers, the Transparency Report includes examples of requests received--noting, in each case, whether or not Google complied with the request.

    The “right to be forgotten” decision and its implementation have raised a number of ethical issues. Given that, we thought it would be useful to draw up an ethics case study that would flesh out those issues; we published that yesterday: see “Removing a Search Result: An Ethics Case Study.”

    What would you decide, if you were part of the decision-making team tasked with evaluating the request described in the case study?

     

  •  The Revised “Introduction to Software Engineering Ethics” Module Is Now Live

    Thursday, Apr. 9, 2015

    The Center’s “All About Ethics” blog this week highlights the revised version of our free online ethics module for introductory software engineering coursesThat blog post and the earlier coverage of the module in Slate detail the impetus and the intent of the project; a related article by the module’s author (Professor Shannon Vallor) and special contributor (Professor Arvind Narayanan) explains why software engineering courses should include ethics coverage; and, last but not least, the module itself is well worth reading, because the issues that it raises and the case studies that it examines impact all of us—coders or not.

    The revised version of the module, released earlier this week, includes more guidance for instructors who want to use the materials, as well as an extended bibliography. As always, we’d love to hear suggestions for additional case studies and feedback on the module overall!

    Photo: Professor Shannon Vallor, Santa Clara University

  •  Harrison Bergeron in Silicon Valley

    Wednesday, Apr. 1, 2015
     
    Certain eighth graders I know have been reading “Harrison Bergeron,” so I decided to re-read it, too. The short story, by Kurt Vonnegut, describes a dystopian world in which, in an effort to make all people equal, a government imposes countervailing handicaps on all citizens who are somehow naturally gifted: beautiful people are forced to wear ugly masks; strong people have to carry around weights in proportion to their strength; graceful people are hobbled; etc. In order to make everybody equal, in other words, all people are brought to the lowest common denominator. The title character, Harrison Bergeron, is particularly gifted and therefore particularly impaired. As Vonnegut describes him,
     
    … Harrison's appearance was Halloween and hardware. Nobody had ever born heavier handicaps. He had outgrown hindrances faster than the H-G men could think them up. Instead of a little ear radio for a mental handicap, he wore a tremendous pair of earphones, and spectacles with thick wavy lenses. The spectacles were intended to make him not only half blind, but to give him whanging headaches besides.
    Scrap metal was hung all over him. Ordinarily, there was a certain symmetry, a military neatness to the handicaps issued to strong people, but Harrison looked like a walking junkyard. In the race of life, Harrison carried three hundred pounds.
    And to offset his good looks, the H-G men required that he wear at all times a red rubber ball for a nose, keep his eyebrows shaved off, and cover his even white teeth with black caps at snaggle-tooth random.
     
    In classroom discussions, the story is usually presented as a critique of affirmative action. Such discussions miss the fact that affirmative action aims to level the playing field, not the players.
     
    In the heart of Silicon Valley, in a land that claims to value meritocracy but ignores the ever more sharply tilted playing field, “Harrison Bergeron” seems particularly inapt. But maybe it’s not. Maybe it should be read, only in conjunction with stories like CNN’s recent interactive piece titled “The Poor Kids of Silicon Valley.” Or the piece by KQED’s Rachel Myrow, published last month, which notes that 30% of Silicon Valley’s population lives “below self-sufficiency standards,” and that “the income gap is wider than ever, and wider in Silicon Valley than elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay Area or California.”
     
    What such (nonfiction, current) stories make clear is that we are, in fact, already hanging weights and otherwise hampering people in our society.  It’s just that we don’t do it to those particularly gifted; we do it to the most vulnerable ones. The kids who have to wake up earlier because they live far from their high-school and have to take two buses since their parents can’t drive them to school, and who end up sleep deprived and less able to learn—the burden is on them. The kids who live in homeless shelters and whose brains might be impacted, long-term, by the stress of poverty—the burden is on them.  The people who work as contractors with limited or no benefits—the burden is on them. The parents who have to work multiple jobs, can’t afford to live close to work, and have no time to read to their kids—the burden is on all of them.
     
    In a Wired article about a growing number of Silicon Valley “techie” parents who are opting to home-school their kids, Jason Tanz expresses some misgivings about the subject but adds,
     
    My son is in kindergarten, and I fear that his natural curiosity won’t withstand 12 years of standardized tests, underfunded and overcrowded classrooms, and constant performance anxiety. The Internet has already overturned the way we connect with friends, meet potential paramours, buy and sell products, produce and consume media, and manufacture and deliver goods. Every one of those processes has become more intimate, more personal, and more meaningful. Maybe education can work the same way.
     
    Set aside the question of whether those processes have indeed become more intimate and meaningful; let’s concentrate on a different question about the possibility that, with the help of the Internet, education might “work the same way”: For whom?
     
    Are naturally curious and creative kids being hampered by standardized tests and underfunded and overcrowded classrooms? Well then, in Silicon Valley, some of those kids will be homeschooled. The Wired article quotes a homeschooling parent who optimistically foresees a day “when you can hire a teacher by the hour, just as you would hire a TaskRabbit to assemble your Ikea furniture.” As to what happens to the kids of the TaskRabbited teacher? If Harrison Bergeron happens to be one of those, he will be further hampered, and nobody will check whether the weight of the burden will be proportional to anything.
     
    Meritocracy is a myth when social inequality becomes as vast as it has become in Silicon Valley. Teaching “Harrison Bergeron” to eighth graders in this environment is a cruel joke.
     
    (Photo by Ken Banks, cropped, used under a Creative Commons license.)
  •  Grant from Intel's Privacy Curriculum Initiative Will Fund New SCU Course

    Friday, Mar. 27, 2015

    Exciting news! A new course now being developed at Santa Clara University, funded by a $25,000 grant from Intel Corporation's Privacy Curriculum Initiative, will bring together engineering, business, and law students to address topics such as privacy by design, effective and accurate privacy policies, best‐practice cybersecurity procedures, and more. Ethics will be an important part of the discussion, and the curriculum will be developed by the High Tech Law Institute in conjunction with Santa Clara University’s School of Engineering, the Leavey School of Business, and the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics.

    More details here!

     

  •  Trust, Self-Criticism, and Open Debate

    Tuesday, Mar. 17, 2015
    President Barack Obama speaks at the White House Summit on Cybersecurity and Consumer Protection in Stanford, Calif., Friday, Feb. 13, 2015. (AP Photo/Jeff Chiu)

    Last November, the director of the NSA came to Silicon Valley and spoke about the need for increased collaboration among governmental agencies and private companies in the battle for cybersecurity.  Last month, President Obama came to Silicon Valley as well, and signed an executive order aimed at promoting information sharing about cyberthreats.  In his remarks ahead of that signing, he noted that the government “has its own significant capabilities in the cyber world” and added that when it comes to safeguards against governmental intrusions on privacy, “the technology so often outstrips whatever rules and structures and standards have been put in place, which means the government has to be constantly self-critical and we have to be able to have an open debate about it.”

    Five days later, on February 19, The Intercept reported that back in 2010 “American and British spies hacked into the internal computer network of the largest manufacturer of SIM cards in the world, stealing encryption keys used to protect the privacy of cellphone communications across the globe….” A few days after that, on February 23, at a cybersecurity conference, the director of the NSA was confronted by the chief information security officer of Yahoo in an exchange which, according to the managing editor of the Just Security blog, “illustrated the chasm between some leading technology companies and the intelligence community.”

    Then, on March 10th, The Intercept reported that in 2012 security researchers working with the CIA “claimed they had created a modified version of Apple’s proprietary software development tool, Xcode, which could sneak surveillance backdoors into any apps or programs created using the tool. Xcode, which is distributed by Apple to hundreds of thousands of developers, is used to create apps that are sold through Apple’s App Store.” Xcode’s product manager reacted on Twitter: “So. F-----g. Angry.”

    Needless to say, it hasn’t been a good month for the push toward increased cooperation. However, to put those recent reactions in a bit more historical context, in October 2013, it was Google’s chief legal officer, David Drummond, who reacted to reports that Google’s data links had been hacked by the NSA: "We are outraged at the lengths to which the government seems to have gone to intercept data from our private fibre networks,” he said, “and it underscores the need for urgent reform." In May 2014, following reports that some Cisco products had been altered by the NSA, Mark Chandler, Cisco’s general counsel, wrote that the “failure to have rules [that restrict what the intelligence agencies may do] does not enhance national security ….”

    If the goal is increased collaboration between the public and private sector on issues related to cybersecurity, many commentators have observed that the issue most hampering that is a lack of trust. Things are not likely to get better as long as the anger and lack of trust are left unaddressed.  If President Obama is right in noting that, in a world in which technology routinely outstrips rules and standards, the government must be “constantly self-critical,” then high-level visits to Silicon Valley should include that element, much more openly than they have until now.

     

  •  Luciano Floridi’s Talk at Santa Clara University

    Tuesday, Mar. 10, 2015

     

     
    In the polarized debate about the so-called “right to be forgotten” prompted by an important decision issued by the European Court of Justice last year, Luciano Floridi has played a key role. Floridi, who is Professor of Philosophy and Ethics of Information at the University of Oxford and Director of Research of the Oxford Internet Institute, accepted Google’s invitation to join its advisory council on that topic. While the council was making its way around seven European capitals pursuing both expert and public input, Professor Floridi (the only ethicist in the group) wrote several articles about his evolving understanding of the issues involved—including “Google's privacy ethics tour of Europe: a complex balancing act”; “Google ethics tour: should readers be told a link has been removed?”; “The right to be forgotten – the road ahead”; and “Right to be forgotten poses more questions than answers.”
     
    Last month, after the advisory council released its much-anticipated report, Professor Floridi spoke at Santa Clara University (his lecture was part of our ongoing “IT, Ethics, and Law” lecture series). In his talk, titled “Recording, Recalling, Retrieving, Remembering: Memory in the Information Age,” Floridi embedded his analysis of the European court decision into a broader exploration of the nature of memory itself; the role of memory in the European philosophical tradition; and the relationship among memory, identity, forgiveness, and closure. As Floridi explained, the misnamed “right to be forgotten” is really about closure, which is in turn not about forgetting but about “rightly managing your past memory.”
     
    Here is the video of that talk. We hope that it will add much-needed context to the more nuanced conversation that is now developing around the balancing of the rights, needs, and responsibilities of all of the stakeholders involved in this debate, as Google continues to process the hundreds of thousands of requests for de-linking submitted so far in the E.U.
     
    If you would like to be added to our “IT, Ethics, and Law” mailing list in order to be notified of future events in the lecture series, please email ethics@scu.edu.

     

  •  The Ethics of Encryption

    Wednesday, Feb. 25, 2015
     
     
    One of the programs organized by the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics is a Business and Organizational Ethics Partnership that brings together Silicon Valley executives and scholars. Earlier this month, the partnership’s meeting included a panel discussion on the ethics of encryption. The panelists were David J. Johnson, Special Agent in Charge of the San Francisco Division of the FBI; Marshall Erwin, a senior staff analyst at Mozilla and fellow at Stanford’s Center for Internet and Society; and Jonathan Mayer, Cybersecurity Fellow at the Center for International Security and Cooperation and Junior Affiliate Scholar at the Center for Internet and Society.
     
    Of course, since then, the conversation about encryption has continued: President Obama discussed it, for example, in an interview that he gave when he came to Silicon Valley to advocate for increased cooperation between tech companies and the government; NSA Director Mike Rogers was challenged on that topic at a recent cybersecurity conference; and Hilary Clinton and others continued to hope for a middle ground solution. However, as the Washington Post recently put it, “political leaders appear to be re-hashing the same debate in search of a compromise solution that technical experts say does not exist.” 
    (In the photo, L-R: Irina Raicu, Jonathan Mayer, Marshall Erwin, and David J. Johnson)
  •  On Remembering, Forgetting, and Delisting

    Friday, Feb. 20, 2015
     
    Over the last two weeks, Julia Powles, who is a law and technology researcher at the University of Cambridge, has published two interesting pieces on privacy, free speech, and the “right to be forgotten”: “Swamplands of the Internet: Speech and Privacy,” and “How Google Determined Our Right to Be Forgotten” (the latter co-authored by Enrique Chaparro). They are both very much worth reading, especially for folks whose work impacts the privacy rights (or preferences, if you prefer) of people around the world.
     
    Today, a piece that I wrote, which also touches on the “right to be forgotten,” was published in Re/code. It’s titled “The Right to Be Forgotten, the Privilege to Be Remembered.” I hope you’ll read that, too!
     
    And earlier in February, Google’s Advisory Council issued its much-anticipated report on the issue, which seeks to clarify the outlines of the debate surrounding it and offers suggestions for the implementation of “delisting.”
     
    One of the authors of that report, Professor Luciano Floridi, will be speaking at Santa Clara University on Wednesday, 2/25, as part of our “IT, Ethics and Law” lecture series.  Floridi is Professor of Philosophy and Ethics of Information at the University of Oxford and the Director of Research of the Oxford Internet Institute. His talk is titled “Recording, Recalling, Retrieving, Remembering: Memory in the Information Age.” The event is free and open to the public; if you live in the area and are interested in memory, free speech, and privacy online, we hope you will join us and RSVP!
     
    [And if you would like to be added to our mailing list for the lecture series—which has recently hosted panel presentations on ethical hacking, the ethics of online price discrimination, and privacy by design and software engineering ethics—please email ethics@scu.edu.] 
     
    Photo by Minchioletta, used without modification under a Creative Commons license.
  •  Covering Sexism in Tech

    Thursday, Feb. 5, 2015
     
    The lack of diversity in the ranks of Silicon Valley tech companies has been a subject for debate for quite some time. It gathered more steam last year, when a number of companies including Apple, Google, and Twitter released their employment numbers, but many people had been writing and working for increased diversity for years.  (I wrote about it, too, in MarketWatch, back in June 2013.) And, as a recent San Francisco Chronicle article noted, with the issue now in the spotlight, a number of startups are “seeking to turn Silicon Valley’s diversity problem into profit—helping tech companies find, recruit, and retain a diverse workforce, usually for a hefty fee. Still other companies have recently added diversity services to those already offered.  In tech, diversity is now for sale.”
     
    In the midst of these developments, last week’s Newsweek cover article “What Silicon Valley Thinks of Women” seemed a bit of a throwback.  The controversial cover that went along with it, which got even more attention than the article itself, seemed even more of a throwback.  Many pixels were spilled, on media social and not, in arguments between those who thought the cover itself was sexist and those who felt that it reflected and therefore drew attention to sexism, and/or that it was effective simply because it drew lots of attention to the article and the magazine.
     
    TechCrunch writer Alexia Tsotsis summed up one side of the debate in an article titled “What (Some) Silicon Valley Women Think of Newsweek” (complete with provocative spoof of the provocative Newsweek cover). She first took Newsweek to task for “[b]andwagoning on after lengthy articles in The New York Times and a very public campaign to collect startup diversity data,” and pointed out that the piece recycles the “requisite tech sexism horror stories.” (In fact, one of the most shocking direct quotes included in the Newsweek article, about women not having “mastered” linear thinking, attributed to a Silicon Valley investor, was also quoted word for word in a July 2014 article in Wired UK. With sexism being so rampant, surely there are other shocking quotes to be found?)
     
    Then, Tsotsis turns to the Newsweek cover, which she describes as “a visceral gut punch”: “It portrays a woman without eyes, in a short skirt, getting her behind clicked on by a big black cursor. (Whoever these Silicon Valley people are who are thinking about women like this, they are not doing it on their phone or a tablet.)”  She then argues that “Newsweek’s faceless and sexualized symbol of women in tech is… basic and reductive. We have worked so hard to broaden the scope of what we can be, in Silicon Valley, in the world, and here comes Newsweek… with an image that bluntly, sloppily trivializes how painfully that progress was won.”
     
    And that is, indeed, the issue.  Maybe stereotypical cartoons can draw attention to a critique of stereotypes (though would it really make sense to illustrate an issue like, say, anti-Semitism by creating a new anti-Semitic cartoon?), but the tone of this particular cover is not critical. It’s playful. It’s breezy. The “woman” on the cover is clearly young, and dressed in a very short red dress (whose hem is being lifted by the oversized cursor). She is also wearing very high-heeled red shoes.  She has no eyes or nose, but she does have a very red mouth—and she looks back—almost gamely—over her shoulder at the cursor lifting her skirt. If the piece is about “what Silicon Valley thinks about women,” the cover visually “quotes” the misogynists.
     
    Ironically, though the article itself focuses on the story of one particular startup founded by two women to illustrate the problem of gender discrimination in Silicon Valley, the reader has to scroll down quite a ways before getting to a photo of those two women entrepreneurs. What if those two real women had been on the cover? Their experiences were apparently seen as interesting and representative enough to illustrate the broader issue, but their faces weren’t. Instead, the key image of the piece (which, the cliché goes, is worth a thousand words), gives voice to those who demean such women.
     
    As Tsotsis notes, the cover “gets to subconsciously influence a bunch of kids accompanying their parents on trips to the grocery … perpetuating what it purportedly denounces — It makes women feel excluded, sexualized and degraded as it tries to point out how bad it is to exclude, sexualize, and degrade women.”
     
    In response to such criticism, the author of the Newsweek article came to the defense of the cover’s designers; she said the backlash was “totally misguided” and added that "For… people to be coming out being outraged by an image as opposed to actual [sexist] behavior is just petty.” That’s a false dichotomy, though: one—or many—can clearly be outraged both by sexist behavior and by a cover that trivializes (and perhaps perpetuates) the problem.  Maybe the next time Newsweek writes about the lack of diversity in Silicon Valley (and yes, we need many more such articles, to keep the attention on an ugly reality that will take some time to change), it will take a page from a different startup highlighted by the San Francisco Chronicle: Gap Jumpers “sells software that helps tech companies evaluate job candidates based on talent alone. The company offers different skills tests to vet people applying for job—a blind audition conducted via computer.” Some cursors aim to lift women, rather than skirts.
     
    Photo by streunna4, used without modification under a Creative Commons license.
     
  •  On Spirituality, Social Justice, and Social Media

    Thursday, Jan. 22, 2015

     

    Christine Cate is a recent graduate of Santa Clara University, where she majored in Public Health Science with a minor in Biology. She has worked at the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics as the Character Education intern for the Character Based Literacy Program since October 2012. A version of this piece first appeared in November 2014 in the blog of the Ignatian Solidarity Network. Christine is a member of the Network’s social media team, focusing on contemporary issues of social justice and spirituality.

    Sometimes, reading the news makes my stomach turn. Every day, headlines about sexual assault, racism, immigration, poverty, or infectious disease are intermingled with stories on Kim Kardashian’s newest racy cover, snow storms on the East Coast, and political speculations. The media is constantly bombarding us with stories ranging in importance from superficial fluff to deeply divisive topics.

    The never-ending availability of news is positive in one sense, as the public is becoming more “informed,” but it also has its consequences. The media is desensitizing us to critical social issues like violence, racism, and sexism, while simultaneously flooding our feeds with stories of naked celebrities trying to break the internet or the most expensive Starbucks drink ever. Inane news stories focusing on things like which celebrity unfollowed whom on Instagram this week distract us from being able to critically observe and understand the world in which we live. Even political news stories can contain sensational levels of bias that make getting an objective comprehension of situations nearly impossible. And it’s nearly impossible to escape; anyone active on social media knows how often links to news articles show up among personal updates and advertisements. Individuals who aren’t constantly connected to social media, rare as they may be, are still saturated with current events from radio, print, and advertising outlets. It takes real effort to not know about what is going on in the world in our current society, and ignorance may be just as harmful as news-intoxication.

    Both the lack of current event literacy and the over-saturation of news are serious problems in our world, as media is one of the most powerful influences in society today. After returning from the Ignatian Family Teach-In that took place in November 2014 in Virginia and Washington, D.C., I found myself reflecting on the role that news and social media play in our lives, and how that impacts both our spirituality and capacity to enact social justice.

    At the Teach-in, in the rare moments between keynote speakers and breakout sessions, large projection screens and television monitors displayed live updates of tweets with the #IFTJ14 hashtag. Multiple photographers scurried around the crowded conference room, and cameras recorded every speaker for the online live stream. The slogan for this year’s Teach-In was “Uprooting Injustice, Sowing Truth, Witnessing Transformation.” The issues of immigration reform, divestment from fossil fuels, and Central American legislation were highlighted, as well as special recognition for the 25th anniversary of the UCA martyrs. Over the course of Saturday and Sunday, conference attendees were challenged to view these issues, as well as other powerful issues like the criminal justice system and racism in society, through a lens of spirituality and social justice. During presentations, audience members tweeted out perspectives or quotes that they felt were especially eye-opening or striking, with their tweets flying out into cyberspace and appearing shortly after on the illuminated screens.

    The reach of the Teach-In is hard to fathom. With an estimated 1,500 attendees, and the majority of them active on social media, it wouldn’t be a far stretch to say that tens of thousands of people were indirectly exposed to the messages of the Teach-In through media sources. The goal of the Teach-In was to give voice to the voiceless, to highlight areas in our collective history and present realities that need change, and I think that goal was accomplished spectacularly. Social media amplified the messages spoken at the Teach-In, and expanded the audience beyond just physical attendees.

    But amid the masses of news stories already flooding the eyes and minds of people today, is social media enough to make a change? How many news readers are intentional in what and how they read news stories? How many social media users are intentionally aware of their influence, and use their accounts as platforms to share morally important or challenging new stories? How many people are harnessing the power of social media to identify injustice, spread truth, and incite action for transformation?
     
    There are plenty of examples of social media bringing faith into daily rhetoric. The hashtag #blessed is popular on Instagram and Twitter, and there are hundreds of accounts that exist solely to post encouraging scripture passages, quotes, or otherwise spirituality related content. Spirituality and faith have become trendy in certain spheres, with social media users around the world able to share prayers and encourage and inspire from afar. But rarely do faithful social media users (in both senses of the word) connect their spirituality, social media reach, and social justice.
               
    What would it look like if the culture of mainstream news and social media changed to include the combination of spirituality and social justice? Would the voices of the oppressed and marginalized be heard more? Would people be more willing to confront the uncomfortable problems in our societies and work for positive change? Or would we just become desensitized to it, as we have to news coverage of war and violence? Can the integration of spirituality and social media be a powerful tool to expose injustices, spread truth, and document change?
     
    I don’t have answers to these questions, not yet. I am far more aware of my social media presence and interaction with news outlets, and would like to be more intentional in how I read news stories and pass them along to my sphere of influence. I think by critically analyzing new stories, and calling out the biases that we have been so accustomed to, we can change the way information is transmitted in society. I think that by integrating spirituality and social justice on a conscious level with how we use social media platforms we will be able to uproot injustice, sow truth, and witness transformation. 
     
    (Photo by Werner Kunz, used without modification under a Creative Commons license.)