Center for Science, Technology, and Society, News page

  •  Applied Materials Announces Commitment with CSTS at the Clinton Global Initiative

    Monday, Oct. 1, 2012

    At The Clinton Global Initiative 2012, Applied Materials announced their commitment with Santa Clara University’s Center of Science, Technology and Society (CSTS) as part of a continued effort to help social entrepreneurs improve their ability to scale (grow) their business and create significantly more impact. The partnership coincides well with this year’s CGI theme of “Designing for Impact” since support from Applied Materials enables CSTS to provide business model and organizational capacity training, as well as expert mentoring, to 18 social entrepreneurs in India and China over the next three years. 

    CSTS is working on a few fronts in this partnership. We are updating our Energy Map which was launched one year ago to help reserachers and practitioners understand the industry of alternative energy in developing countries. As mentioned, we are also excited to have the support of Applied Materials so we can continue to help India, which is well represented in our program, and expand into China. 
  •  The Tech Awards to Honor Global Innovators Who Use Technology to Benefit Humanity

    Wednesday, Sep. 26, 2012

    SAN JOSE, CA – Each year, nearly four million newborn babies never live past their first days – all for lack of warmth. 

    At least a billion people globally have limited – or no access – to clean water. And while almost half the world’s population cooks with wood or other biomass fuels, indoor-air pollution generated by cooking fires contributes to the premature deaths of nearly two million people annually.
    Enter the “techmanitarians” – a dozen international innovators who toil with unequaled resolve to eliminate these and other persistent global challenges.  Their noble achievements will be recognized Thursday, Nov. 15, 2012 at the Santa Clara Convention Center during Silicon Valley's leading awards program, The Tech Awards, presented by Applied Materials in association with the Center for Science, Technology, and Society at Santa Clara University.
    “We are inspired by the laureates’ desire to improve the world through the creative use of technology and their perseverance to this end,” said Tim Ritchie, president of The Tech Museum. “Their lives and work serve as a challenge to us:  Do we desire to make our work count for others, and are we willing to use our considerable assets to build a better world?”
    This year, two cash prizes will be awarded - $75,000 and $25,000 - in each of six of The Tech Awards categories: Intel Environment Award; Microsoft Education Award; The Swanson Foundation Young Innovator Award; Nokia Health Award; Flextronics Economic Development Award, and The Sustainable Energy Award. 
    Since the inception of The Tech Awards program in 2001, 257 laureates have been recognized. Their pioneering work has included designing earthquake-resistant construction technology to creating a heat-sensitive label for vaccine vials to make sure children receive potent immunizations to building a simple, low-cost, mobile phone-based device that allows remote monitoring and operation of irrigation pumps.
    “Through their outstanding creativity and conviction, this year’s laureates are providing innovative solutions to some of humanity’s most urgent problems,” said Mike Splinter, Chairman and CEO of Applied Materials. “In many ways, the Tech Awards embody the spirit of Silicon Valley and the belief that technology can improve people’s lives and make the world a better place.”
    As part of The Tech Awards, Indian philanthropist N.R. Narayana Murthy, will be honored with the James C. Morgan Global Humanitarian Award sponsored by Applied Materials. This award honors individuals whose broad vision and leadership help to alleviate humanity's greatest challenges. Murthy founded tech services giant Infosys Limited along with six colleagues and went on to become one of India’s most influential advocates for health care and rural development.
    Murthy served as the first CEO for 21 years and currently holds the role of Chairman Emeritus at the global technology services company. Infosys established the Infosys Foundation in 1996. The Infosys Foundation works in partnership with non-governmental organizations to help underprivileged rural communities in India that are focusing on five initiatives: healthcare, education, culture, destitute care and rural development.
    Murthy, who has been lauded by TIME magazine, honored by CNBC and praised by Ernst & Young as World Entrepreneur of the Year, joins an impressive roster of past recipients that includes former eBay head and champion of equitable society Jeff Skoll, education and cross-cultural dialogue advocate Queen Rania Al Abdullah of Jordan, Nobel Laureate and former U.S. Vice President Al Gore, Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates and Applied's former Chairman and CEO James C. Morgan, who inspired the award.
    The Tech Awards laureates 2012 represent regions as diverse as Africa, India, South America and the United States. Their work impacts people in many more countries worldwide. 
    During their week-long stay in Silicon Valley, the laureates are engaged in specialized business and media training, networking with leading tech companies and venture capitalists, as well as learning about the experiences of fellow laureates. 
    Applications will be accepted for next year’s laureates beginning November 1, 2012. 
    Intel Environment Award
    • Arup K. SenGupta  
      Transforming Arsenic Crisis into an Economic Enterprise
      Southeast Asia; India
      • Problem: According to World Health Organization (WHO), over 200 million resource-poor people are threatened with arsenic poisoning by drinking contaminated groundwater in Cambodia, Nepal, India, Bangladesh and Vietnam.
      • Solution: Use of appropriate simple-to-operate technology in rural setting to transform arsenic crisis into an economic enterprise while protecting human health.
      • Impact: Over 200,000 people including school children are benefiting in arsenic-affected countries. 
    • LEHR, Inc. Propane Outboard Motors
      U.S. and Canada
      • Problem: Small gasoline engines cause excessive pollution, yet electric/battery solutions do not provide the performance required to be a universally viable alternative.
      • Solution: Patented gaseous-fueled engines that significantly reduce/eliminate pollution while improving performance and reducing cost of ownership.
      • Impact:  About 100,000 lawn and garden engines that eliminate evaporative emissions while reducing VOC (Volatile organic compounds) emissions. Marine outboard engines that eliminated fuel spills into water while reducing methyl-mercury-causing particulate emissions by up to 96 percent.
    Microsoft Education Award
    Literacy Bridge
    Talking Book
    Problem: Basic health and agriculture knowledge isn’t reaching the world’s poorest billion people due to illiteracy and lack of electricity.
    Solution: A simple and durable, battery-operated, audio computer playing locally produced lessons that address the practical needs of people in oral cultures.
    Impact: 250,000 lessons delivered to 20,000 farmers in the poorest regions of Ghana.  Farmers harvested 48 percent more crops and 90 percent of maternal health lessons led to healthier behaviors.
    Problem: Research shows that despite hundreds of millions of dollars spent worldwide on HIV "awareness" campaigns over 30 years, accurate knowledge of HIV still remains dangerously low.
    Solution: Re-imagine the worldwide public health solution to focus on actual "education" rather than "awareness" and develop the most effective and flexible HIV education software after 5+ years of cross-disciplinary research at Stanford.
    Impact: Provide HIV education with unprecedented efficacy to more than 200 organizations and governments in 73 countries, educating millions around the world, and including breakthrough implementations in regions that had banned sex education.
    Katherine M. Swanson Young Innovator Award
    Angaza Design 
    Problem: Prohibitive upfront prices for clean-energy products prevent millions of off-grid Africans from accessing healthy and economical lighting and battery charging.
    Solution: Low-cost, embedded pay-as-you-go technology that allows customers to pre-pay for energy use with cash-in-hand. Remotely regulated over cellular networks and integrated with existing mobile money platforms, these energy payments are cheaper than typical kerosene expenditures.
    Impact: Clean, bright light and cell-phone charging is financially accessible for over 90 percent of the base of the pyramid market.
    Safe Agua Peru, Art Center College
    Problem: In Cerro Verde, a slum on the outskirts of Lima, Peru, 30,000 people live without access to running water and sanitation.
    Solution: Design and co-create with Cerro Verde families, innovative and cost-effective products tested by the community and implemented by Techo, a Latin American NGO dedicated to working with families living in extreme poverty.
    Impact: Empower families and communities through responsible design to conserve water, reduces illness and generate social, cultural, and economic change.
    Nokia Health Award 
    Problem: Every year almost 2 million people die prematurely from indoor pollution caused by smoky open cooking fires; these same fires contribute more black carbon than all the cars and trucks in the world combined.
    Solution: The BioLite Homestove is a low-cost, highly efficient wood-burning stove that dramatically reduces smoke and harmful black carbon emissions while reducing fuel needs by 50 percent. 
    Impact: A single HomeStove pays for itself in six to seven months, and lowers the rates of potentially fatal respiratory diseases while saving 2,000 pounds of wood per year and averting the C02 emissions of a compact car.
    Problem: 1.1 million pre-term babies die every year; 75 percent could survive with inexpensive treatment.
    Solution:  A low-cost infant warmer specifically designed to address the needs of babies suffering from hypothermia.
    Impact: Thousands of babies may be impacted by the warmers currently distributed with 11 partnerships in eight countries.
    Flextronics Economic Development Award
    Grameen Foundation USA
    Community Knowledge Worker
    Problem: Small farmers often lack knowledge and information on agriculture.
    Solution: Deploying trained intermediaries. Information and advice increases yields and profits.
    Impact: Work with 65,000 farmers in more than 8,800 villages to increase yields and profits
    Pamela C. Ronald, David Mackill, Kenong Xu
    Rice Submergence Tolerance 
    Problem: Yields of rice, the most important crop for over half of our planet, are catastrophically reduced during floods. Because rice provides up to two thirds of the diet of many people in the developing world, many who live on less than $1 day, these losses have devastating impacts on farmers and their families.
    Solution: Identification of a submergence tolerance gene and precise introduction of the gene into locally adapted varieties favored by farmers using modern molecular breeding.
    Impact: In 2011, a million farmers grew “Sub1 rice,” with millions more expected in the next few years. Yields of “Sub1” rice are three to five folds greater than conventional varieties during floods.
    Sustainable Energy Award
    Eco-Fuel Africa 
    Problem: Clean cooking fuel is inaccessible for 30 million people in Uganda and 28 million poor farmers have no access to fertilizers.
    Solution: Simple, locally made technology that can be used by local people to convert sourced farm and municipal waste into clean cooking fuel and organic fertilizers.
    Impact: 6,000 families already benefiting from the technology, with 10,000 more expected to be reached by the end of 2013.
    Simpa Networks 
    Problem: 400 million people in India, and more than 1.5 billion worldwide are without access to reliable electricity.  
    Solution: Simple, affordable, pay-as-you-use pricing and mobile payment for off-grid solar energy solutions.
    Impact:  By 2015, more than 250,000 households with access to  clean energy, 6.5 megawatts of distributed solar power installed, more than 160,000 tons of CO2 displaced.
    For more information about The Tech Awards, visit:
    Roqua Montez
    Director Public Relations
    (408) 795-6225
    About The Tech Museum of Innovation
    The Tech Museum is a hands-on technology and science museum for people of all ages and backgrounds. The museum—located in the Capital of Silicon Valley —is a non-profit, experiential learning resource established to engage people in exploring and experiencing applied technologies affecting their lives. Through programs such as The Tech Challenge presented by Cisco, our annual team-design competition for youth, and internationally renowned programs such as The Tech Awards presented by Applied Materials, The Tech Museum endeavors to inspire the innovator in everyone.
    About Applied Materials
    Applied Materials, Inc. (Nasdaq:AMAT) is the global leader in providing innovative equipment, services and software to enable the manufacture of advanced semiconductor, flat panel display and solar photovoltaic products. Our technologies help make innovations like smartphones, flat screen TVs and solar panels more affordable and accessible to consumers and businesses around the world. At Applied Materials, we turn today's innovations into the industries of tomorrow. Learn more at
    About the Center for Science, Technology, and Society
    The mission of the Center for Science, Technology, and Society (CSTS) is to accelerate global, innovation-based entrepreneurship in service to humanity. Through its signature program, the Global Social Benefit Incubator (GSBI™), as well as the Frugal Innovation Lab, research in Impact Capital, and collaboration with The Tech Awards, the Center engages business and technical resources to build the capacity of social enterprises around the world. As a Center of Distinction at Santa Clara University, the Center leverages its programs to inspire faculty and students with real-world case studies, distinctive curriculum, and unique research opportunities, advancing the university’s vision of creating a more just, humane, and sustainable world. More information can be found at


  •  SF Chronicle: "Global Social Benefit Incubator still strong"

    Monday, Sep. 10, 2012

    This article was originally published by the San Francisco Chronicle. The original source can be found here

    Shivani Siroya is a petite woman hammering away at a tall task - building a model of credit scores for the poor in India.

    On a recent weekday in Santa Clara, she took her audacious enterprise before a group of investors, professors and entrepreneurs from Silicon Valley - many of whom have never worked or lived in India.
    But they're keen on helping, by transferring their knowledge from the Bay Area to markets in the developing world that seek sustainable business strategies.
    Siroya was one of 19 entrepreneurs at this year's Global Social Benefit Incubator who have been undergoing a critical evaluation from this group, whose members also include venture capitalists and experts in social enterprise. Beyond building successful enterprises, the incubator wants ones that alleviate social needs.
    "People are not going to give money to you indefinitely, even if you're doing some good in the world. So we have to help these entrepreneurs develop sound business models that will flourish and last," said Eric Carlson, director of the incubator and dean's executive professor in the Leavey School of Business at Santa Clara University.
    Not a typical program
    Started in 2004 at the university's Center for ScienceTechnology and Society, the incubator hoped to combine the talents of the valley with the activism of emerging social entrepreneurs to see if social impact and profit-making could be combined. Among its first successes: Husk Power Systems, an alternative energy business that recycled rice husks into an energy supply. Today, Husk supplies energy to more than 200,000 people in 300 villages in northeastern India.
    An incubator participant from a year ago, Katherine Lucey, CEO and founder of Solar Sister, also works in alternative energy for the poor. Her model mimics that of Avon. Instead of lipsticks and perfumes, the local female entrepreneurs she relies on in Uganda and Rwanda sell solar lamps.
    Compared with other social incubators of the past decade, Lucey says, the Santa Clara one stands out. "I think their Silicon Valley location gives them an intensity and a drive that ramps up the typical incubator program," she said.
    As Solar Sister went from simply being a pilot project to developing a full-blown business plan, Lucey attended a two-week, in-residence program last summer. That resulted in a more nuanced business model and partnerships with past incubator participants such as San Francisco's, the crowdfunding microfinance platform. Now donors can help fund a Solar Sister entrepreneur's business by lending to her via the Kiva website, Lucey said.
    Growing a business
    For mentors at the workshop, getting these entrepreneurs to scale is a primary goal. But as Anuj Sharma, COO of Sarvajal, a water-based social enterprise in South Asia, learned at this year's event, it's not just about sporadic growth. His mentors advised him to go deeper, not wider.
    "The constructive feedback has been around not getting excited about numerous small opportunities, such as taking the initiative to other countries ... but making sure that we have greater depth in demonstrating our work in India itself," he said.
    Siroya agrees.
    "The emphasis of this program is on how to really scale your organization and get the kinks out so you can get home and get back to work and hit the ground running. It's about really coming out of here with a solid operating plan. It's literally like MBA boot camp," she said.
    Entrepreneurs attend classes on unit economics, scaling business, value chains, operating plans, budgets and fundraising from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. daily. Those sessions are followed by late-night get-togethers with their mentors, where they get more personalized advice.
    This year's gathering brought together more than 150 mentors, who will continue to work with these enterprises into the fall. One is Jeff Miller, former director of Santa Clara's Center for Science, Technology and Society. He built a career in technology at Intel before transitioning to supporting social businesses. He's been an adviser since the program's inception and sees one common thread in many of the young people.


    "They have such huge, wonderful, passionate visions of how to change the world in energy, water, education and more. But they lack focus. So we encourage them to look at an area that they can focus on and make an impact. This can be a particular demographic or region, which makes for a more concentrated effort."
    Getting focused
    Aside from making visions more concrete, entrepreneurs are taught to balance social impact with profit, he explains. Presenting a purely socially driven plan to a venture capitalist rarely gets funding.
    "They're not bad people," Miller jokes, "but they have to make a return as well. So you have to tailor it to their needs as well when making a pitch."
    Investing for impact
    Impact investing, an emerging field for social effect as well as monetary return, has been gaining prominence. But Miller and Carlson are cautious, noting that the area needs to mature and develop an infrastructure. Yet it's quickly become a topic of discussion at the incubator.
    "Impact investing has not been terribly successful so far. There's money around in the valley, yes. But it's largely risk-averse. Plus, we have to make sure that investors don't drift from the intentions of the social business, which is very much to create a product for the bottom of the pyramid, not the top," Carlson said.
    Carlson hopes that in the near future, they can team entrepreneurs not just with Silicon Valley mentors, who understand the bottom line, but with mentors in their countries of operation, who know the bottom of the pyramid intimately.
    "That would be ideal," he said.
    Esha Chhabra is a freelance writer. E-mail:


  • "Ten Years in Social Entrepreneurship: The 19 innovators who presented at GSBI represent broader entrepreneurship trends"

    Monday, Aug. 27, 2012
    This article was originally published on You can view the original article here
    The social entrepreneurship concept and community have grown tremendously in the last decade. In the august company of pioneers such as Skoll Foundation and Acumen Fund, Santa Clara University’s Global Social Benefit Incubator (GSBI™) celebrates 10 years of working with over 150 social entrepreneurs to build financially sustainable ventures that scale.
    On Aug. 23, 19 truly amazing social entrepreneurs in our tenth cohort delivered their business plan presentations. Individually and collectively, they reflect broader trends in social entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship more generally—especially the rise of women as pioneers in social entrepreneurship, the pursuit of energy solutions that are independent of grids or other infrastructure, the use of mobile platforms, and focus on increasing agricultural productivity in Africa.
    Women. Ten of the 19 social entrepreneurs who were awarded scholarships for the GSBI are women, and so for the first time, we have a majority of women in the cohort. While this majority reflects global population dynamics (due to lower life expectancy for men), it also exemplifies what the latest literature teaches us about the different, but complementary, leadership abilities of men and women. One Child One Light’s female leader Ramani Vedula aims to bring four million children back to school and increase the literacy rate through an innovative solar power lantern-charging model. Nazava’s woman entrepreneur Lieselotte Heederik brings safe drinking water to poor households in Indonesia, saving them money and reducing carbon emissions. Headed by a male entrepreneur committed to keeping girls in school, BaNaPads produces affordable, eco-friendly sanitary pads from banana stems in Uganda.
    Energy. Because of the significance of energy as a barrier for the poor, we have consciously pursued an energy sector strategy formulated by GSBI Director Emeritus Jim Koch and Base-of-Pyramid (BoP) thought leader Al Hammond.  A sector strategy also allows us to gain deeper insights into the technology solutions, business model innovations, and contextual factors that can influence whether a social enterprise can scale in a financially sustainable fashion.  
    Half of our cohort seeks to address energy poverty, including EcoEnergy Finance, which delivers clean energy to rural Pakistan, a true frontier market. UbiLuz gets clean energy to poor people in Central America. Potential Energy, formerly the Darfur Stoves Project, has already helped more than 120,000 displaced persons in Sudan and Ethiopia. And Mali Biocarburant, a leading specialty oil and biodiesel supplier in West Africa, also provides livelihoods for smallholder farmers and enables food security through intercropping.
    Agriculture (in Africa). Speaking of agriculture, this year’s cohort includes a cluster of three social enterprises working in Kenya, all headed by women: Kilimo Salama, an innovative micro-insurance program for smallholder farmers; Backpack Farm, which provides training and green agri-tech solutions to improve the agricultural production capacity of smallholder farmers; and, M-Farm, leveraging broadly available mobile technology to create markets for smallholder farmers.
    Mobile apps. Building on the ubiquity of simple mobile phones as the entry point for solving some of the world’s most pressing problems, many of the entrepreneurs have mobile strategies. All of the agriculture-focused social enterprises in this year’s cohort leverage mobile technology in some fashion. So, too, does InVenture with the ambitious mission of enabling financial access for all through simple, accessible SMS-based financial tools.CarbonKeeper, initially focused on mobile information management for rural energy businesses, broadened its vision to mobile CRM for social enterprises during the course of GSBI and has renamed itself CustomerKeeper.
    Increasing sophistication of social entrepreneurs. In general, we are finding social entrepreneurs have more real-world experience as well as more academic credentials. Starting in Rwanda, the Chief Instigating Officer of Sustainable Health Enterprises (SHE) Elizabeth Scharpf, focuses on better sanitary protection for women; she holds two Harvard degrees. Increasingly sophisticated social entrepreneurs leverage individual and collective wisdom, learning from success stories to create their own. SalaUno, in Mexico, is essentially replicating the successful business model and enabling culture of Aravind Eye Care to eradicate preventable blindness. In India, Sarvajal marries electronic point-of-sale technology with a micro-franchising strategy to deliver safe drinking water through “water ATMs.”
    Nokero is an excellent example of sophistication in the energy sector. In operation only two years, this remarkable social enterprise has already distributed more than 400,000 solar powered lights in 120 countries – using just $60,000 in start-up capital. In a first for the GSBI, Nokero has multiple distributors in the class, including Earthspark International, which distributes clean and affordable energy products in Haiti. Solanterns, another classmate, is testing market demand for Nokero’s products in Kenya as it drives to replace one million kerosene lamps with solar lanterns.
    The Power of Community.  Solar Sister, a GSBI 2011 alum, is also a distributor for Nokero in Uganda, demonstrating the power of the GSBI network: social entrepreneurs who share a vernacular for sustainable, scalable businesses and find they can readily partner – when it makes sense. And our alumni are reproducing! Lifeline Technologies, a for-profit progeny of GSBI 2004 alum non-profit Lifeline Energy, highlights the emergence of hybrid structures that ensure impact-first investment of operating surplus.
    A video replay of last week’s event, featuring business presentations from each of these amazing social entrepreneurs can be found here.  

    Thane Kreiner is executive director of the Center for Science, Technology, and Society, at Santa Clara University, home of the GSBI. 

  • "Mentoring Global Startups in Silicon Valley"

    Monday, Aug. 20, 2012

    This OpEd was originally published on and can be found here.

    From August 12 to 24, a group of 19 social entrepreneurs from all over the world is in Silicon Valley for the Global Social Benefit Incubator (GSBI), of the Center for Science, Technology, and Society at Santa Clara University. The program combines months of online mentoring and exercises led by Valley executives and industry experts with a two-week “boot camp” of back-to-back classes, capped by a public business-plan presentation event.  The program is designed to help entrepreneurs expand and magnify the impact of their social ventures, and prepare their business plans for presentation to potential partners and funders.
    Some of the participants at the GSBI are sharing dispatches from the 10th annual GSBI with Dowser. Dr. Paul Meissner, one of the 70 mentors who volunteer their time to work with social entrepreneurs, shared his thoughts.
    Every year, I look forward to mid-August, when the cohort of social entrepreneurs comes to the Global Social Benefit Incubator.  This year I am privileged to work with Hugo Verkuijl, CEO of Mali Biocarburant who produces bio-oils and fuels that are generated locally.
    For mentoring to have its greatest impact, it must be a life-changing experience for both the mentor and the entrepreneur.  Whether the social entrepreneur is advanced in developing his business, or is just nucleating an idea, I find that mentoring is more than simply “giving back,” or sharing real-life experience from the Silicon Valley.  Let’s face it, many parts of the world are as innovative, as fast moving, and breakthrough-producing as we are.  
    For me it is an in-depth way to open my eyes to parts of the world I would never have known otherwise, and a path to relationships I would never have had had I simply decided to write a check to a worthy international aid organization.
    Maybe the easiest way to describe what I mean is to relate my experience with Global Easy Water Products (GEWP) back in 2005. Suresh Subramanian, the brilliant and hardworking board member of this for-profit offshoot of the non-profit International Development Enterprises India (IDEI), where he was COO, came to Santa Clara to get help create a business model to reach subsistence farmers who could use drip irrigation to provide food for their families.  It became clear right away that just like many Silicon Valley startups, he had trouble deciding on his target markets and didn’t understand how much money he needed to scale. 
    Suresh had a heart for subsistence small-plot farmers who desperately needed help but were expensive to educate and hard to reach given his limited distribution network.  We spent time together online and then for two weeks on SCU’s campus and found a new way to segment his markets. He realized in the end that to impact subsistence farmers he needed to first focus on more-established farmers who understood drip irrigation and could save a lot of money by using his much cheaper solution.  Once his distribution channel was in place, he could better reach those in most need of the social benefit of his product.
    Suresh then took this model and worked with agribusiness enterprises in India like sugarcane mills, which agreed to provide very short-term agricultural loans to farmer to buy the drip systems.  In exchange, they received price guarantees on the sugarcane produced.
    After sorting out the market, Suresh presented me and my fellow mentor, a Silicon Valley private investor named Bob Dench, with a financial model using quarterly and annual figures.  He concluded he needed just over $100K to launch his expansion.  Not having the least experience in agriculture, I completely missed a critical issue with the model that was caught right away by Bob, who has years of experience in agri-business.  The key to the financial model was MONTHLY cash burn, taking into account the seasonal planting and revenue cycles of the business.  This simple change to the calculation meant the real cash need was more than 5x larger than the quarterly model predicted. 
    Getting this insider’s perspective on rural markets, agricultural business and Indian markets brought me to a much better understanding of our small planet, and taught me how an idea and a relationship can impact many thousands of lives.
    The energy and excitement created during these late-night working sessions led to celebrations as Bob and I watched Suresh get $1MM in equity funding from Acumen Fund and successfully ramp his business to $4MM per year. GEWP is still a successful for-profit enterprise, seven years later.  
    Like anything that requires you to really understand something that is foreign or to step far outside your comfort zone, being a mentor to a global social entrepreneur is a thrill, an exciting way to challenge your creativity and innovation in ways even Silicon Valley never imagined. I’ve come away different as a human being, richer and more connected in a globalizing world that needs innovation and collaboration more than ever.
    Paul Meissner is a native of the Bay Area and a graduate of UC Berkeley.  After receiving a Ph.D. in engineering from Stanford, he spent nearly 25 years in Silicon Valley in companies ranging from Coherent Inc. to Applied Materials.  More recently he has held CEO positions in the telecom and renewable energy sectors.

  •  Huffington Post: "Models for Scaling Social Enterprises"

    Tuesday, Aug. 14, 2012
    This article was originally published by the Huffington Post Blog. The original link can be found here
    It's easy to identify financial-first enterprises that have scaled to a truly global level in many sectors: soft drinks (Coke, Pepsi), financial services (HSBC), petroleum-based fuels (Royal Dutch/Shell), consumer products (P&G), mobile phones (Samsung, Nokia, Apple), etc.; the list goes on with products and services reaching billions. But there are relatively few examples of social enterprises that have scaled significantly or globally. Why? What factors influence whether social enterprises can scale, beyond the obvious need for financial capital? How do these factors vary in relation to the goods or services the social enterprise delivers, as a function of the entrepreneur's personal motivation, or in the cultural context in which the enterprise operates?
    Clearly, if there were easy answers to these and other questions, there would be more social enterprises that have benefited massive numbers of poor. Rather than trying to answer them, I'll explore a few dimensions to the challenge and raise more questions.
    In June, I wrote about disruptive innovation, with Aravind Eye Care as an example in health care. Aravind also represents a social enterprise that has scaled in at least two dimensions: within a country and across its value chain. Aurolab is the manufacturing division, ensuring high quality, affordable ophthalmic consumables; the Eye Bank procures corneas for sight-restoring surgery; Aravind offers education and training to develop health care and business human resources for its hospitals (and others); notably, the Aravind Medical Research Foundation conduct basic and translational research to ensure a pipeline of new innovations "to reduce the burden of blindness." Arravind essentially has built the full value chain for vision, but it has not scaled (on its own) outside of India. Its singular focus on vision is undoubtedly a factor in its admirable success. Why, so far, has the model not been successfully replicated in other countries at meaningful scale? 
    Husk Power Systems, which I wrote about in April, is scaling primarily within Bihar, one of the poorest states of India. The technology and business model appear well suited to scale beyond; for instance, the HPS biomass-powered electrical generators can accept other feedstock. But, its ambitions just within Bihar could fully occupy the stellar management team for at least the next 5 years. What would be required to enable parallel scaling in multiple geographies simultaneously?
    Gram Vikas, now working in more than 1,000 villages in India, is a great example of what my colleague Jim Koch calls depth scaling, offering an array of programs including safe drinking water, sanitation, education, renewable energy, habitats, food security, and natural resource management. The portfolio of services is somewhat context specific; for example, transforming cultural paradigms such as the caste system are paramount for Gram Vikas to realize its compelling vision of "an equitable and sustainable society where people live in peace with dignity." What changes in the portfolio of services and the ways they are delivered would be necessary to scale beyond India?
    Fundacion Paraguaya is another example of deep scaling within a country. FP's initial microfinance services led to programs in entrepreneurship education, organic agriculture, and livelihood training. Notably, FP seeks to catalyze replication of its organic school and provides resources to help others establish self-sufficient schools. The notion is a social enterprise franchise model, in which a different management team operates essentially the same business model in a different geography with whatever (hopefully minor) business model modifications necessary for success in the local context. FP is also a good example of what one might call "open source" social enterprise: the originator wants others to copy a successful innovation for the poor. Who will leverage these social franchising resources, and where?
    The scaling model most similar to a multinational corporation might be termed a Multi-National Social Enterprise (MNSE). A MNSE might be characterized as offering essentially the service(s) in a number of different countries. Riders for Health enables delivery of health care and other services by managing appropriate vehicle fleets. Its focus on a well-defined solution has enabled it to operate in 10 countries in Africa.
    One could debate whether BRAC is a social enterprise or a "traditional" NGO; its success cannot be denied: it now operates in 10 countries beyond its Bangladesh origin, delivering a broad range of tools for poverty alleviation. BRAC's explicit intention is to identify services that can be scaled in the contexts of a variety of different countries, and reaches over 100 million beneficiaries. Grameen Foundation, which I wrote about last month, may have the broadest geographical reach, operating in 36 countries, with a focus on microfinance and mobile phone based services; it counts 9.4 million of the world's poor helped. While laudable, these numbers raise questions about the ultimate scalability of MNSEs; they pale in comparison to the billions served by multi-national corporations (MNCs). Why?
    Some of the barriers are known, among them, a lack of: systematic market intelligence; management capabilities and capacity in the regions of greatest need; capital investment vehicles and expectations; last-mile distribution infrastructure; and market-distorting subsidies and tariffs. It is unclear whether the best way to maximize impact is through open source models or scaling on one's own; different social entrepreneurs may understandably have different motivations. Moreover, the success of social enterprises frequently relies on relationships with other organizations. Such relationships can be difficult to replicate, or impossible if similar organizations do not exist in target regions.
    While continued invention and innovation are still absolutely critical to solve the needs of the poor, robust exploration of models for scaling social enterprises might accelerate impact dramatically with solutions -- technologies and business models -- that already exist.
  • Could the Blackout be Fuel for India's Energy Entrepreneurs?

    Thursday, Aug. 2, 2012

    This article was originally posted on You can view the original article here

    The collapse of India’s power grid cast 670 million people into darkness—nearly one in 10 inhabitants of our planet.  It called into question the dominant logic of a fragile centralized power system with chronic outages, growth in demand that greatly outstrips new capacity, yet leaves a fourth of India’s population without basic electricity. 

    Conventional “solutions” like centralized coal-fired plants and continued price subsidies for energy from polluting fossil plants and the wide use of back-up diesel generators will only exacerbate the scale of future crisis. These subsidies are, in part, motivated by the risks of political instability in the presence of the rising inflation in energy and food prices. Ironically, amongst those prone to protest are farmers forced to run diesel-powered pumps under widespread drought conditions caused by climate change. The day of reckoning for India’s badly inadequate energy infrastructure has arrived, and a plethora of social entrepreneurs is developing solutions that offer great promise.
    Social entrepreneurs in India are pioneering a decentralized energy paradigm, characterized by improving efficiencies that bring energy cost into parity with grid alternatives, and contribute to economic development and the eradication of poverty in rural areas. These new technologies provide affordable clean energy through community-scale micro-grids, solar home systems, and solar lanterns that displace the need for subsidized kerosene and provide a hundred times the lumens for a fraction of the cost. 
    Bihar-based Husk Power Systems’ standalone mini-power plants convert rice husk waste into affordable off-grid energy to over 300 villages at a total capital cost of less than $1.3/watt—less than mega thermal power plants. Each plant is operated by a village entrepreneur, who manages the plant and collects payment from electricity users. SELCO India, operating out of Karnataka and Gujarat, provides customized solar home systems to meet specific customer load requirements with payment plans that dramatically reduce the total five-year cost of energy. Working with commercial banks, rural banks and credit cooperatives, it has made clean energy financially feasible and has over 135,000 solar systems installed. In Kolkata, ONergy has become a valued-added reseller of an array of solar home systems, lanterns, clean cooking stoves and energy-efficient appliances, also providing critical financing, service and support infrastructure to over 150 villages in east India through their Renewable Energy Centers.
    While the distributed solutions of these social mission enterprises seek to provide the more than 300 million Indian citizens who are off the grid with access to affordable clean energy, the problem remains that the government continues to subsidize kerosene and diesel, with market-distorting impacts.
    On the technology front, solar energy in India is benefitting from positive tailwinds, including a 75 percent reduction in the cost per watt of solar panels in the last five years alone. The policy front is less positive, however, with perverse headwinds designed to prop up a failed central power system. These need to shift to support for potential for these and other distributed clean energy solutions to serve the future of India, its people, and its environment. India could be a showcase, and grassroots social entrepreneurs are prepared to be the pathfinders. The day of reckoning has arrived.
    Jim Koch is Energy Sector Director for the Center for Science, Technology, and Society at Santa Clara University and co-founder of the Global Social Benefit IncubatorTM
  • 10 Life-Or-Death Lessons For Social Entrepreneurs

    Thursday, Aug. 2, 2012

    This article was originally posted in the Forbes Blog. You can view the original article here

    The following guest post is by Al Bruno, cofounder of  the Global Social Benefit Incubator and the William T. Cleary Professor in Santa Clara University’s Leavey School of Business. He is also the founder of the school’s Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship.


    For the past decade, my colleagues and I have helped more than 150 social entrepreneurs from all over the world hone their business plans, which they are able to pitch for 15 exhilarating minutes to Silicon Valley financiers and executives.   Through our ten years running this mentoring program, called the Global Social Benefit Incubator, we’ve culled some top tips for anyone looking to develop their business plan and pitch it to potential funders or partners:


    1.         Prove that you know how your customers make decisions.  Virtually every social venture we counsel asks its customers to change entrenched behaviors and make a different decision for spending their precious dollars:  to pay for clean water instead of making do with dirty water; pay a few pennies for sanitary pads rather than stay home five days a month; invest in clean solar lights that initially cost more than toxic kerosene. Understanding how such customers or beneficiaries decide to spend – or not spend – can be one of the biggest challenges for any kind of venture.   What will prove persuasive to get them to change? What evidence do you have that they will change? 
    2.         Understand how your product or service works on a per-unit basis.  To grow and thrive, you need to be able to “scale up” the value you bring to your current customers or beneficiaries. This requires a clear understanding of your marginal costs – how much it will cost to produce the next unit – and the prices that your customers are willing to pay. Typically this means adding in costs to expand production and distribution (which many entrepreneurs forget to factor in) in a way that grows the bottom line.
    3.         Document your key assumptions and provide a plan for testing them. Experienced funders and partners will want to test the assumptions that you make about customer buying behavior, markets, financing, etc. Do the work for them by setting metrics that can be tracked. India-based Naandi Foundation projected it could sell clean drinking water to 40 percent of its target market. To test that, Naandi employees who educate consumers on clean water’s benefits were enlisted for market research. They learned that customers wouldn’t travel to far-away water kiosks, so they added a bicycle delivery service – enabling them to exceed rather than miss their target.
    4.         Don’t overlook the “packaging” of your presentation, and be strategic with story-telling. Of course, the content of your business plan and presentation matters most, but packaging is more important than you think. Your audience is human, and you must use persuasion to get them on board. Utilizing video clips, “neat” graphics and a compelling – though not overdramatized – story of one beneficiary or group can grab the audience far better than a dry recitation of facts.
    5.         Be honest— even if you see opportunity slip away as a result. The starting point to being successful is to be brutally honest with yourself and with the stakeholders in your venture.  While hyping the size of your target market to epic proportions may seem necessary to catch a funder’s attention, failing to live up to that hype during the diligence period can burn that bridge and many more.  Be restrained and conservative in your projections — such as by overstating your expected costs and expenses, and understating your expected revenues — rather than the opposite.
    6.         Target and time your requests for funding to significant milestones in the evolution of your organization. A recent report indicates that one major “social impact” investing fund, the Acumen Fund, looked at more than 5,000 opportunities in the past 10 years and invested in only 65 of them.  Why? The social entrepreneurs did not understand the business stage and maturity that Acumen seeks before it makes an investment. Do your research to pick the right prospective funders — be they grant-makers, equity investors, or lenders – and time your request at the appropriate stage of your corporate growth. And remember that what you have accomplished to date is history.  What you hope to accomplish with the contributed capital is what is important to your funder.
    7.         Emphasize that you’ve built a strong team and organizational infrastructure—or show how you plan to achieve that vital goal. Funders and partners know that having capable people in key roles is critical to your success. Unfortunately, developing countries often can’t supply the key team members or qualified employees you need to scale. India-based Husk Power Systems (a GSBI alumni company) has addressed this problem by forming its own training entity— Husk Power University— to train the workers it needs to staff the 75 + power plants it currently operates, and to provide employees for future needs such as its move into Africa.
    8.         Show how you use or plan to use partnerships and alliances. Forming strategic relationships with other organizations can be a means to add complementary products or services, stretch scarce resources, or access markets through otherwise-inaccessible distribution channels. Another GSBI alumni company, Hapinoy, partners with the largest microfinancier in the Philippines to provide financing for its network of rural retailers, and teams up with local bus drivers to deliver essential goods to remote locations.
    9.         Build in governance and oversight into your plan. It is critical that you have strong oversight and governance to ensure appropriate and objective decision-making.  Not only can external participants, such as board members, add useful insights to your thinking, but they also can reassure investors that there is an additional set of eyes and minds at work protecting their money from risk.

    10.     Be a feedback fiend.  In addition to getting feedback from customers, expose your ideas and thinking to trusted advisors, mentors and investors to refine your pitch. Most importantly, listen to their comments, observations, and criticisms so you can address them in your next pitch. You must demonstrate that you have anticipated key concerns and have thought through the issues.
    Want to see all this in action? Come hear about innovation that can change lives at the GSBI 2012 business plan presentations on August 23, 2012 in the Mayer Theatre at Santa Clara University. For more information, see


  •  Huffington Post: From There to Here: Social Enterprise and Reverse Innovation

    Wednesday, Jul. 25, 2012
    This article was originally posted in the Huffinton Post Blog. You can view the original article here.
    As its many supporters well know, the Grameen Bank's name bespeaks its Bangladeshi roots; Gram is a Bengali word meaning "rural" or "village," and ever since its founding in 1983 by the Bangladeshi banker, economist and Nobel Peace Prize recipient Muhammad Yunus, the non-profit microfinance organization, an early pioneer of so-called "solidarity lending," has served the country's rural poor out of its headquarters in Dhaka. Lauded for lifting millions out of poverty, the Grameen Bank is one of the great successes of development, and its model of micro-lending has been replicated in dozens of countries around the world.
    One of those countries is the United States.
    In fact, Grameen itself began doing business in the U.S. in early 2008, when it opened the first outpost of Grameen America in Queens, New York. It now operates a total of seven branches -- in Indianapolis, Omaha and San Francisco, and three others in New York, including one in Manhattan. Indeed, just miles away from Wall Street, where billions of dollars change hands every day, a Bangladeshi social venture is providing the poor with access to credit free of the fraudulent terms they're typically forced to live with. And it has plans to expand.
    That growth is proof that the Grameen Bank's brand of group lending -- which relies on peer pressure rather than collateral to ensure that debts are repaid -- can work in America. But just as important is what it says about social enterprises across the board: while they typically target underserved communities in places very different from America -- places with no access to electricity, much less credit -- their work can teach us a great deal about solving the problems we face at home.
    After all, Grameen isn't the only social venture to successfully transition from the developing world to the developed. There's also the non-profit, which allows microfinance institutions from around the globe to post profiles of qualified local entrepreneurs on its site and invites would-be lenders to browse and fund those individuals over the Internet. Inspired by the Grameen Bank, Kiva's creators built one of the world's most successful social enterprises -- and one we're proud to have worked with through the GSBI -- by catering exclusively to entrepreneurs in the developing world.
    Then, in 2009, after lending more than $150 million in 53 countries, Kiva partnered with the Opportunity Fund and Acción USA to provide its services in America, where the economic downturn had created new demand for affordable loans. Despite initial skepticism that the model would work, new user sign-up went up dramatically in the days after Kiva's launch, and all loans solicited as part of that launch were completely funded within 18 days. Now, through its new Kiva City program, the organization aims to spur job growth in some of the country's most anemic local economies. Co-sponsored by Visa, Inc., Kiva City extends access to microloans in U.S. cities where microfinance institutions aren't operating at scale, providing small businesses with a rare source of capital -- and city officials across the country are getting on board.
    If Kiva and Grameen are making the case for microloans in America, Samasource is doing the same for so-called "microwork." That's the term founder Leila Janah coined in 2008 to describe her non-profit's novel approach to fighting poverty -- one that provides unskilled, albeit capable, workers in underserved communities with small tasks that pay a living wage and can be performed online.
    Headquartered in San Francisco, Samasource secures contracts to execute large data entry or digitization projects from leading U.S. tech companies like Google and LinkedIn. It then moves those projects to its proprietary online platform, the SamaHub, where the work is broken down and distributed to service partners in six different countries -- Haiti, India, Kenya, Pakistan, South Africa, and Uganda. To date, the award-winning social enterprise has created more than 2,000 jobs and paid out more than $1 million in wages.
    Now, like Kiva and Grameen, Samasource has turned its attention to the U.S. -- specifically the Bay Area, where it plans to pilot its first domestic program, SamaUSA, later this year with support from the California Endowment. If that effort proves effective in helping marginalized women in two low-income communities boost their incomes through online work, they'll seek funding to scale it up.
    For all their success overseas, social enterprises like Samasource, Kiva and Grameen are up against a far different challenge in the U.S., and it may be years before they make a dent in the nation's poverty rate, which continues to climb. Still, as we search for paths out of the economic crisis, we would do well to remember that across much of the developing world, financial hardship is a constant -- and that fact is the driving force behind the kinds of innovations that could one day help us fix what's broken in our own backyard. 

    Follow Thane Kreiner on Twitter: 

  •  The Secret Sauce

    Friday, Jul. 6, 2012
    Veterans of Silicon Valley may differ in style and personality, but they tend to have in common a certain business DNA—the kind coded for fast growth and rapid scaling, for promoting innovation and bringing ambitious ideas to fruition.
    If that’s what made them successful in the corporate world, it’s also a big reason for the success we’ve had working with social enterprises  around the world through our signature program, the Global Social Benefit Incubator (GSBITM). Indeed, ever since its inception in 2003, that program has been built around our network of volunteer mentors—currently some 60, mostly Silicon Valley executives, financiers, consultants and VCs who share their entrepreneurial expertise with each GSBI cohort.  In addition, they share their humanity, their ability to listen and coach, their humility and respect for others, and their admiration for fellow entrepreneurs attempting to create solutions for those who don’t have what we take for granted.
    Our GSBI alumni tell us that the unique qualities of these mentors are our “secret sauce.” And as we celebrate the GSBI’s 10th anniversary this year, it seems a fitting moment to talk about who they are, what they do and what’s in store for the future of the program.
    But first, some context.
    Launched in 2003, the GSBI came about just as many seasoned business people were reaching a stage in life when they were eager to give back. Having forged highly successful careers in software, electronics, and other fields, they were looking for an opportunity to share their experiences and insights and in so doing help make the world a better place.
    With its aim of empowering entrepreneurs with a social mission to build and scale up financially sustainable organizations, the GSBI offered the entrepreneurs experienced guides to help analyze and refine their business models.  And with this, gave them a chance to channel their passion for positive change in everything from education and healthcare to clean electricity and agriculture—and to do even more of it.
    It was a perfect match and, for both parties, it has had a palpable impact. Of the program’s 139-award winning alumni, 132 (nearly 95%) are still working in their social ventures.  More than half are expanding, growing revenues faster than expenses. And when asked to rank the various features of the program, nearly all of them put interaction with their mentors as the most significant element.
    So what makes GSBI mentors so good?
    For starters, they’re a supremely successful lot. They’ve founded NASDAQ companies, funded famous start-ups, and run major divisions of well-known Silicon Valley firms. They have, on average, more than 25 years of entrepreneurial experience, and many have been involved in multiple Silicon Valley start-ups. They are experienced in all the things we teach in the GSBI curriculum—value proposition, business models, operations, growth plans, presentations to potential impact investors--and they do them very well.
    But there’s more to it than their business bona fides. Mentors must also be great listeners-- people with the humility to acknowledge that there’s much they don’t know--people who care more about finding the best way forward than about asserting their own ideas.
    Indeed, as former mentor Hardika Shah puts, “the best tool you have may be that you don’t know anything.” That ignorance of the issue, she says—be it clean cookstoves in Haiti or refrigeration in rural India—“allows you to ask the questions everyone else forgot to ask along the way.”  
    Being a GSBI mentor also requires the ability to establish rapport and trust. “A lot of social entrepreneurs, when you have that initial conversation, they’re very wary of sharing information,” says Shah. “They’re thinking, Who are these people? Do they want to steal my ideas? Who are they sharing this with? They keep their cards to themselves.”
    But once that trust has been established, the information comes pouring out. “They realize it’s a risk-free relationship,” she says, “and they tell you about some of their deepest concerns, about their venture’s biggest weaknesses and problems—the kinds of things they would never tell a paid consultant—because they know that you’re someone they can trust, that you have no agenda but to help them.”
    Shah, herself a former consultant at Accenture, joined the GSBI in 2004, shortly after a trip to her native India. Having spent the previous ten years in the US, Shah was shocked to find a yawning gap between the country’s educated classes and “those who were being left behind.” Despite the liberalization of the Indian economy and its rapid growth over the previous decade, little seemed to have changed for the country’s poor.
     “And I thought to myself, What have I done to help?” That question led Shah to the Tech Awards that Santa Clara University judges and, later, to the Center for Science, Technology and Society, where she met GSBI founding director Jim Koch. “I asked him how I could help, and he told me about the mentor program.” Over the next seven years, Shah served as mentor to 12 social enterprises before quitting her job at Accenture to start Kinara Capital, a for-profit venture that provides capital access solutions to small businesses across India.
    Shah credits that move to her experiences as a mentor. “That gave me the opportunity to learn along with the entrepreneurs, but it also gave me the confidence to go out and do this,” she says. “You know, we go to business school and talk about being an entrepreneur, but to see folks with so much stacked against them and yet doing amazing things—it’s so inspiring.”
    Indeed, GSBI mentors routinely remark that they learn more from the social entrepreneurs than the social entrepreneurs could possibly learn from them. That was the case as well for Steven White, CEO of Svaya Nanotechnologies, who began volunteering last year as a GSBI mentor to a social entrepreneur working in Haiti.
    “I probably learned a lot more than I could teach him,” White says of his work with Sebastian Africano, the international director of Trees, Water and People, a social enterprise that designs and builds fuel-efficient cookstoves and delivers them to poor communities throughout Central America.
    “Sebastian is a very capable guy. He already had a design he’d developed, and he had a very clear value proposition: if you could produce a more efficient cookstove, you could reduce the consumption of charcoal, saving people money, helping them live healthier lives, and potentially reducing deforestation.”
    The challenge, White recalls, was finding the cost point that would incentivize people living in poverty to invest a bit of money in the product. “We came up with a workable model to use carbon credits to offset the cost of manufacturing, which meant that they could effectively give these things away. So we did some research and helped him figure out how that would work from a cash flow perspective. And it all came out very nicely,” he says. “By the end, there was a really clear path to success, and now Sebastian is off doing it.”
    In short, mentoring has worked. The ingredients, the personal and professional characteristics of the individuals selected for the job, have been the same since day one. And we believe that consistency has generated a kind of brand-name appeal; to social entrepreneurs around the world, the name GSBI stands for quality.
    At least that’s the message we get from the hundreds of applications we receive from social entrepreneurs every year for just 20 open slots in our Silicon Valley program. Now, with the plan and funding to scale the program to serve potentially hundreds per year through GSBI Online, a completely virtual version of the classic GSBI program, the mentor’s role becomes even more important. And several changes are on the horizon.
    For one, enrolling more social entrepreneurs means bringing on more mentors. Many of those new mentors will come from outside Silicon Valley and even outside the US, and some will begin to advise social entrepreneurs on the ground in the places they operate. We hope that these in-country mentors will provide greater local insight, much needed networking to partners, and ongoing support after the formal GSBI program has ended.
    Of course, even as we expand our mentor ranks—our current cadre of 60 represents a ten-fold increase over the last ten years--we have a mandate to maintain our rigorous standards for involvement in the program. We continue to seek exceptional individuals with that uncommon blend of leadership experience in fast-growth businesses and the human qualities critical to a genuine two-way exchange.
    Looking ahead, we know that with the new changes come significant challenges. And while we are firm believers in the power of personal, face-to-face interaction, we’re confident that GSBI Online mentors will be every bit as helpful to, and inspired by, the SEs with whom they work.  
    For all of us who have had the privilege to serve as mentors, the last ten years have been full of wonderful experiences. We hope that the next ten years will be no less rewarding. And as we go forward, we’d like to hear from you. If you have ideas about how our mentors can amplify their impact on social ventures around the world, don’t hesitate to let us know. 

    Michael Looney, Ph.D. is the GSBI Mentor Network Director at the Center for Science, Technology, and Society. 


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