Department of Electrical Engineering

Professor Emeritus: Dragoslav D. Siljak

Professors: Timothy J. Healy, Shoba Krishnan (Department Chair), Samiha Mourad (William and Janice Terry Professor), Tokunbo Ogunfunmi, Sarah Kate Wilson, Sally L. Wood (Thomas J. Bannan Professor), Cary Y. Yang, Aleksandar Zecevic

Associate Professor: M. Mahmudur Rahman

Assistant Professor: Maryam Khanbaghi

Lecturer: Ramesh Abhari

Electrical engineering includes the broad range of design, construction, and operation of electrical components, circuits, and systems. This includes sustainable energy and electric power, signal and image processing, embedded systems, nanotechnology, antennas, RF and communication systems, and all phases of the transmission of information.

Laboratories are an important part of most undergraduate courses in the electrical engineering program. Use of appropriate laboratory equipment, design tools, and components demonstrates fundamental concepts of the courses and acquaints students with methods and tools they may use after graduation. The department has five teaching laboratories that cover the fields of electric circuits, electronics, systems, logic design, RF and communication. In addition, the program has a laboratory dedicated to the support of senior design projects and is supported by the facilities of the Engineering Computing Center.

Requirements for the Major

In addition to fulfilling the Undergraduate Core Curriculum for the bachelor of science degree, students majoring in electrical engineering must fulfill the following major requirements and complete a minimum of 190 units. For every required engineering and science course, if an associated laboratory is listed following the course description, then that laboratory is also required to fulfill the major requirements.


  • ENGL 181

Mathematics and Natural Science

  • MATH 11, 12, 13, 14
  • AMTH 106 (or MATH 22) and AMTH 108 (or MATH 122)
  • CHEM 11
  • One from CHEM 12; BIOL 21; PHYS 113, 121; MATH 53, 105, 123
  • PHYS 31, 32, 33, 34


  • ENGR 1
  • CENG 41
  • COEN 44 (or 11), and COEN 12
  • MECH 121
  • ELEN 20, 21, 33, 50, 100, 104, 110, 115, 192, 194, 195, 196

Technical Electives

Four undergraduate elective courses. One must be selected from each of the following areas:

  • IC Design: ELEN 116, 127, 151, 152, 153, 156
  • Systems: ELEN 118, 123, 129, 130, 133, 134, 160, 167
  • RF and Communication: ELEN 105, 129, 141, 144
  • Power Systems: ELEN 164, 182, 183, 184

Additional electives may be substituted, with the approval of the advisor, from the following:

  • Computer Engineering courses: COEN 120, 122, 146
  • First-year graduate-level electrical engineering coursework

Professional Development

A professional development experience selected from one of the following options:

  • 4 or more units in a study abroad program that does not duplicate other coursework
  • Cooperative education experience with enrollment in ELEN 188 and ELEN 189
  • 2 units in ENGR 110 (Community-Based Engineering Design)
  • Preparation for graduate study in electrical engineering with completion of 2 or more additional units of upper-division or graduate-level courses
  • Completion of an approved minor or second major in any field of engineering or science
  • Completion of 10 or more units in the combined bachelor of science and master of science program
  • 2 units of Peer education experience

Requirements for the Minor

Students must fulfill the following requirements for a minor in electrical engineering:

  • ELEN 21, 21L, 50, 50L, 115, 115L
  • Two courses selected from ELEN 100, 104, 110, and 151, including their associated laboratory courses
  • Three upper-division ELEN lecture courses (ELEN 100-level courses, excluding ELEN 188, 189, 192, 194, 195, and 196)
  • Work completed to satisfy these requirements for the minor must include at least two courses beyond any free electives or other courses required to earn the bachelor's degree in the student's primary major

Combined Bachelor of Science and Master of Science Program

The Department of Electrical Engineering offers a combined degree program leading to the bachelor of science and a master of science. This program is open to electrical engineering majors with an approved grade point average in electrical engineering, mathematics, and physics courses. Under the combined degree program, an undergraduate student begins taking courses required for a master's degree before completing the requirements for the bachelor's degree and typically completes the requirements for a master of science in electrical engineering within a year of obtaining the bachelor's degree. Undergraduate students interested in the combined degree program are required to apply for the program between February of their junior year and December of their senior year.

Students in this program will receive their bachelor's degree after satisfying the full undergraduate degree requirements. To earn the master's degree, students must fulfill all the requirements for the degree, including the completion of 45 units of coursework beyond that applied to their bachelor's degree. No course can be used to satisfy requirements for both the bachelor's degree and the master's degree. However, completion of 10 or more units of coursework in electrical engineering taken for the master's degree satisfies the professional development requirement of the undergraduate program.

The program of studies for the master's degree may include up to 20 units of electrical engineering upper-division elective coursework excluding ELEN 151, 188, and 189. These undergraduate units can count toward a master's degree only if a grade of "B" or better is earned. Students who do not complete the combined degree program within six years of entering the University will automatically be transferred to the regular master's degree program. Although six years is the maximum timeframe for completing the combined degree, full-time students enrolling in February of their junior year normally complete both degrees within five years.

Electrical Engineering Laboratories

The RF and Communications Laboratory provides a full range of modern measurement capability from 0 to 22 GHz, including a number of vector network analyzers, modern spectrum analyzers and antenna measurement set-ups. It also has extensive computer-aided design and simulation capability. Interconnection of hardware measurements and computer simulation is stressed.

The Digital Systems Laboratory provides complete facilities for experiments and projects ranging in complexity from a few digital integrated circuits to FPGA-based designs. The laboratory also includes a variety of development systems to support embedded systems and digital signal processing.

The Electronic Devices Laboratory is dedicated to teaching and research topics on electronic devices, materials, and their manufacturing technologies. Current research topics include modeling complex electronic devices using variational methodologies, fabrication and experimental studies or photovoltaic devices, ageing of organic semiconductor films, application of porous silicon in devices, etc.

The Image and Video Processing Laboratory supports graduate student research on algorithms and implementations for image analysis, computer vision, image reconstruction and super-resolution, and stereo imaging. Laboratory equipment includes cameras for image acquisition and computational resources, including FPGAs and GPUs for real-time testing.

The Intelligent Control System Laboratory provides an experimental environment for students in the area of control system engineering. The lab includes computer-controlled DC motors. These motors provide students with a range of qualitative and quantitative experiments such as inverted pendulum for learning the utility and versatility of feedback in computer-controlled systems.

The Latimer Energy Laboratory (LEL) supports a very wide range of activities relating to solar energy, more specifically photovoltaics (PV) and management of renewable energy sources, from K-12 outreach through graduate engineering. The laboratory focuses on two major directions: 1) measurement and characterization of different renewable energy sources; and 2) integration of renewable energy into the electric grid. The lab has instrumentation such as pyranometers, VIS-IR spectrometers, metallurgical microscopes, source meters, grid simulator software and related computers.

The Nanoelectronics Laboratory provides teaching and research facilities for modeling, simulation, and characterization of devices and circuits in the nanoscale. Ongoing research topics include silicon heterostructures, thin dielectrics, high-frequency device and circuit parameter extraction, carbon nanostructures used as electrical interconnect and thermal interface materials, and compact modeling of transistors and interconnects for large-scale circuit simulation. This laboratory is part of the campus-wide Center for Nanostructures, established to conduct, promote, and nurture nanoscale science and technology interdisciplinary research and education activities at the University, and to position the University as a national center of innovation in nanoscience education and nanostructures research.

The Robotics Systems Laboratory is an interdisciplinary laboratory specializing in the design, control, and teleoperation of highly capable robotics systems for scientific discovery, technology validation, and engineering education. Laboratory students develop and operate systems that include spacecraft, underwater robots, aircraft, and land rovers. These projects serve as ideal test beds for learning and conducting research in mechatronic system design, guidance and navigation, command and control systems, and human-machine interfaces.

The Signal Processing Research Laboratory (SPRL) conducts research into theoretical algorithm development in adaptive/nonlinear signal processing, machine learning, speech/ audio/video signal processing and their applications in communications, biotech, Voice- over-IP networking and related areas. The lab supports student research in algorithms and real-time implementations on digital signal processors (DSPs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Laboratory equipment includes digital oscilloscopes, video cameras, wireless LAN networking equipment, DSP boards, and FPGA boards.

Lower-Division Courses

20. Emerging Areas in Electrical Engineering

Introduction to new frontiers in electrical engineering. Hands-on activities and visits to research and production facilities in Silicon Valley companies to learn how the fundamentals of electrical engineering are enabling new emerging technologies. (2 units)

21. Introduction to Logic Design

Boolean functions and their minimization. Designing combinational circuits, adders, multipliers, multiplexers, decoders. Noise margin, propagation delay. Bussing. Memory elements: latches and flip-flops; timing; registers; counters. Programmable logic, PLD, and FPGA. Use of industry quality CAD tools for schematic capture and HDL in conjunction with FPGAs. Also listed as COEN 21. Co-requisite: ELEN 21L. (4 units)

21L. Logic Design Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 21. Also listed as COEN 21L. Co-requisite: ELEN 21. (1 unit)

33. Digital Systems Architecture

Overview of processor architectures for general purpose processors, special purpose signal processing microprocessors, and FPGA soft core processors; data representation in fixed point, floating point; instruction set architectures; assembly and machine language programming; real-time I/O; introduction to sample data systems. Analog to digital converters and digital to analog converters. Prerequisites: ELEN 21 with a grade of C- or better, and COEN 11 or 44. Co- requisite: ELEN 33L, COEN 12. (4 units)

33L. Digital Systems Architecture Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 33. Co-requisite: ELEN 33. (1 unit)

49. Fundamentals of Electricity for Civil Engineers

Transducers. Motors, generators and efficiency. DC and AC circuits. One and three- phase power systems. Sources of electricity. Hydroelectric power, generation, and pumps. Electrical diagrams and schematics. (4 units)

50. Electric Circuits I

Physical basis and mathematical models of circuit components and energy sources. Circuit theorems and methods of analysis are applied to DC and AC circuits. Co-requisite: ELEN 50L, PHYS 33. (4 units)

50L. Electric Circuits I Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 50. Co-requisite: ELEN 50. (1 unit)

Upper-Division Courses

100. Electric Circuits II

Continuation of ELEN 50. Sinusoidal steady state and phasors, transformers, resonance, Laplace analysis, transfer functions. Frequency response analysis. Bode diagrams. Switching circuits. Prerequisite: ELEN 50 with a grade of C- or better, or PHYS 70. Co-requisite: ELEN 100L, AMTH 106. (4 units)

100L. Electric Circuits II Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 100. Co-requisite: ELEN 100. (1 unit)

104. Electromagnetics I

Vector analysis and vector calculus. The laws of Coulomb, Lorentz, Faraday, and Gauss. Dielectric and magnetic materials. Energy in electric and magnetic fields. Capacitance and inductance. Maxwell's equations. Wave equation. Pointing vector. Wave propagation and reflection. Transmission lines. Radiation. Prerequisites: PHYS 33 and ELEN 50 with a grade of C- or better. Co-requisite: ELEN 104L. (4 units)

104L. Electromagnetics I Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 104. Co-requisite: ELEN 104. (1 unit)

105. Electromagnetics II

In-depth study of several areas of applied electromagnetics such as transmission lines, microstrip and strip lines, matching circuits, magnetic circuits, antennas and antenna arrays. Prerequisite: ELEN 104. Co-requisite: ELEN 105L. (4 units)

105L. Electromagnetics II Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 105. Co-requisite: ELEN 105. (1 unit)

110. Linear Systems

Signals and system modeling. Laplace transform. Transfer function. Convolution. Discrete systems. Frequency analysis. Fourier series and transform. Filtering. State-Space models. Prerequisite: ELEN 100. Co-requisite: ELEN 110L. (4 units)

110L. Linear Systems Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 110. MATLAB laboratory/ problem sessions. Co-requisite: ELEN 110. (1 unit)

112. Modern Network Synthesis and Design

Approximation and synthesis of active networks. Filter design using positive and negative feedback biquads. Sensitivity analysis. Fundamentals of passive network synthesis. Design project. Prerequisite: ELEN 110. Co-requisite: ELEN 112L. (4 units)

112L. Modern Network Synthesis and Design Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 112. Co-requisite: ELEN 112. (1 unit)

115. Electronic Circuits I

Study of basic principles of operation, terminal characteristics, and equivalent circuit models for diodes and transistors. Analysis and design of diode circuits, transistor amplifiers, and inverter circuits. Prerequisite: ELEN 50 with a grade of C- or better. Co-requisite: ELEN 115L. (4 units)

115L. Electronic Circuits I Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 115. Co-requisite: ELEN 115. (1 unit)

116. Electronic Circuits II

Design and analysis of multistage analog amplifiers. Study of differential amplifiers, current mirrors and gain stages. Frequency response of cascaded amplifiers and gain- bandwidth considerations. Concepts of feedback, stability, and frequency compensation. Prerequisite: ELEN 115. Co-requisite: ELEN 116L. (4 units)

116L. Electronic Circuits II Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 116. Co-requisite: ELEN 116. (1 unit)

117. Advanced Analog Integrated Circuit

Design and analysis of BJT and MOSFET analog ICs. Study of analog circuits such as comparators, sample/hold amplifiers, and continuous time switched capacitor filters. Architecture and design of analog to digital and digital to analog converters. Reference and biasing circuits. Study of noise and distortion in analog ICs. Prerequisite: ELEN 116. Co-requisite: ELEN 117L. (4 units)

117L. Electronic Circuits III Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 117. Co-requisite: ELEN 117. (1 unit)

118. Fundamentals of Computer-Aided Circuit Simulation

Introduction to algorithms and principles used in circuit simulation packages (such as SPICE). Formulation of equations for linear and nonlinear circuits. Detailed study of the three different types of circuit analysis (AC, DC, and transient). Discussion of computational aspects, including sparse matrices, Newton's method, numerical integration, and parallel computing. Applications to electronic circuits, active filters, and CMOS digital circuits. Course includes a number of design projects in which simulation software is written in MATLAB and verified using SPICE. Prerequisites: ELEN 21, with a grade of C- or better; ELEN 100 and 115. Co-requisite: ELEN 118L. (4 units)

118L. Fundamentals of Computer-Aided Circuit Stimulation Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 118. Co-requisite: ELEN 118. (1 unit)

119. Current Topics in Electrical Engineering

Subjects of current interest. May be taken more than once if topics differ. (4 units)

123. Mechatronics

Introduction to behavior, design, and integration of electromechanical components and systems. Review of appropriate electronic components/circuitry, mechanism configurations, and programming constructs. Use and integration of transducers, microcontrollers, and actuators. Also listed as COEN 123 and MECH 143. Prerequisite: ELEN 50 with a grade of C- or better and COEN 11 or 44. Co-requisite: ELEN 123L. (4 units)

123L. Mechatronics Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 123. Also listed as COEN 123L and MECH 143L. Co-requisite: ELEN 123. (1 unit)

127. Advanced Logic Design

Contemporary design of finite-state machines as system controllers using FPGA devices. Minimization techniques, performance analysis, and modular system design. HDL simulation and synthesis. Also listed as COEN 127. Prerequisite: ELEN 21 with a grade of C- or better. Co.requisites: ELEN 127L. (4 units)

127L. Advanced Logic Design Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 127. Design, construction, and testing of controllers from verbal specs. Use of CAD design tools. Also listed as COEN 127L. Co-requisite: ELEN 127. (1 unit)

130. Control Systems

Applications of control systems in engineering. Principle of feedback. Performance specifications: transient and steady-state response. Stability. Design of control systems by frequency and root locus methods. Computer- controlled systems. State-variable feedback design. Problem sessions. Prerequisite: ELEN 110. Co-requisite: ELEN 130L. (4 units)

130L. Control Systems Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 130. Co-requisite: ELEN 130. (1 unit)

131. Introduction to Robotics

Overview of robotics: control, artificial intelligence, and computer vision. Components and structure of robots. Kinematics and dynamics of robot manipulators. Servo-control design, PID control. Trajectory planning, obstacle avoidance. Sensing and vision. Robot intelligence and task planning. Prerequisite: ELEN 110. Co-requisite: ELEN 131L. (4 units)

131L. Introduction to Robotics Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 131. Co-requisite: ELEN 131. (1 unit)

133. Digital Signal Processing

Discrete signals and systems. Difference equations. Convolution summation. Z-transform, transfer function, system response, stability. Digital filter design and implementation. Frequency domain analysis. Discrete Fourier transform and FFT. Audio, video, and communication applications. Prerequisites: ELEN 110 or both ELEN 50 with a grade of C- or better, and COEN 19. Co-requisite: ELEN 133L. (4 units)

133L. Digital Signal Processing Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 133. Laboratory for real-time processing. Co-requisite: ELEN 133. (1 unit)

134. Applications of Signal Processing

Current applications of signal processing. Topics may vary. Example topics include Speech Coding, Speech Recognition and Biometrics. Prerequisite: ELEN 133, MATLAB. Co-requisite: ELEN 134L. (4 units)

134L. Applications of Signal Processing Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 134. Co-requisite: ELEN 134. (1 unit)

139. Special Topics in Signals and Systems

Subjects of current interest. May be taken more than once if topics differ. (4 units)

141. Communication Systems

Modulation and demodulation of analog and digital signals. Baseband to passband conversion. Random processes, Signal-to- noise ratios and Bandwidth Considerations Prerequisites: ELEN 110 and AMTH 108. Co-requisite: ELEN 141L. (4 units)

141L. Communication Systems Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 141. Co-requisite: ELEN 141. (1 unit)

144. RF and Microwave Components

The fundamental characteristics of passive and active electrical components. Parasitics, models, and measurements. Modeling of circuit interconnect wiring as transmission lines. Study of crosstalk and other noises in high-speed digital circuits, matching circuits, power dividers and microwave filters. Prerequisite: ELEN 105.Co-requisite: ELEN 144L. (4 units)

144L. RF and Microwave Components Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 144. Co-requisite: ELEN 144. (1 unit)

151. Semiconductor Devices

Properties of materials, crystal structure, and band structure of solids. Carrier statistics and transport; p-n junction statics, I-V characteristics, equivalent circuits, and switching response. Metal-semiconductor contacts, Schottky diodes. MOS field-effect transistors, bipolar junction transistors. Prerequisite: ELEN 104. Co-requisite: ELEN 151L. (4 units)

151L. Semiconductor Devices Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 151. Co-requisite: ELEN 151. (1 unit)

152. Semiconductor Devices and Technology

MOS field-effect transistors, bipolar junction transistors, heterjunctions. Principles of silicon IC fabrication processes. Bulk and expitaxial crystal growth, thermal oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation. Process simulation for basic devices. Prerequisite: ELEN 151. Co-requisite: ELEN 152L. (4 units)

152L. Semiconductor Devices and Technology Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 152. Co-requisite: ELEN 152. (1 unit)

153. Digital Integrated Circuit Design

Introduction to VLSI design and methodology. Study of basic principles of operation, terminal characteristics, and equivalent circuit models for diodes and transistors. Analysis of CMOS integrated circuits. Circuit modeling and performance evaluation supported by simulation Ratioed, switch, and dynamic logic families; combinational and sequential circuits. Fully-custom and semi- custom design. Physical design: placement and routing. Use of state-of-the-art CAD tools. Prerequisites: ELEN/COEN 21 and ELEN 50 with a grade of C- or better. Co-requisite: ELEN 153L. (4 units)

153L. Digital Integrated Circuit Design Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 153. Co-requisite: ELEN 153. (1 unit)

156. Introduction to Nanotechnology

Introduction to the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Properties of nanomaterials and devices. Nanoelectronics: from silicon and beyond. Measurements of nanosystems. Applications and implications. Laboratory experience is an integral part of the course. Also listed as MECH 156. Prerequisites: PHYS 33 and either PHYS 34 or MECH

15. Co-requisite: ELEN 156L. (4 units)

156L. Introduction to Nanotechnology Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 156. Also listed as MECH 156L. Co-requisite: ELEN 156. (1 unit)

160. Chaos Theory, Metamathematics, and the Limits of Knowledge: A Scientific Perspective on Religion

Limitations of science are examined in the framework of nonlinear system theory and metamathematics. Strange attractors, bifurcations, and chaos are studied in some detail. Additional topics include an introduction to formal systems and an overview of Godel's theorems. The mathematical background developed in the course is used as a basis for exploring the relationship between science, aesthetics, and religion. Particular emphasis is placed on the rationality of faith. Also listed as ELEN 217. Prerequisites: AMTH 106 (or an equivalent course in differential equations), and a basic familiarity with MATLAB. Co-requisite: ELEN 160L. (4 units)

160L. Chaos Theory, Metamathematics, and the Limits of Knowledge: A Scientific Perspective on Religion Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 160. Co-requisite: ELEN 160. (1 unit)

164. Introduction to Power Electronics

Power and efficiency computations, rectifiers, power devices, DC-to-DC converters, AC-to-DC converters, and DC-to-AC inverters. Prerequisite: ELEN 115. Co-requisite: ELEN 164L. (4 units)

164L. Introduction to Power Electronics Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 164. Co-requisite: ELEN 164. (1 unit)

167. Medical Imaging Systems

Overview of medical imaging systems including sensors and electrical interfaces for data acquisition; mathematical models of the relationship of structural and physiological information to sensor measurements, resolution and accuracy limits; conversion process from electronic signals to image synthesis. Analysis of the specification and interaction of the functional units of imaging systems and the expected performance. Focus on MRI, CT, and ultrasound. Also listed as BIOE 167, BIOE 267. Prerequisite: BIOE 162 or ELEN 162. (4 units)

180. Introduction to Information Storage

Storage hierarchy. Design of memory and storage devices, with a particular emphasis on magnetic disks and storage-class memories. Error detection, correction, and avoidance fundamentals. Disk arrays. Storage interfaces and buses. Network attached and distributed storage, interaction of economy, and technological innovation. Also listed as COEN 180. Prerequisites: ELEN 21 or COEN 21, and COEN 20; COEN 122 is recommended. (4 units)

182. Energy Systems Design

Introduction to alternative energy systems with emphasis on those utilizing solar technologies; system analysis including resources, extraction, conversion, efficiency, and end-use; project will design power system for a house off or on grid making best use of renewable energy; system design will include power needs, generation options, storage, back-up power. Prerequisites: ELEN 50. (4 units)

183. Power Systems Analysis

Analysis, design, and optimization of power systems for traditional and renewable power generation. Balanced three phase circuits. Transformers and transmission lines. Prerequisite: ELEN 100 or PHYS 12. Co-requisite: ELEN 183L. (4 units)

183L. Power Systems Analysis Laboratory

Laboratory for ELEN 183. Co-requisite: ELEN 183. (1 unit)

184. Power System Stability and Control

Examine power system stability and power system control, including load frequency control, economic dispatch, and optimal power flow. Also listed as ELEN 231. Prerequisites: ELEN 183 or equivalent. (4 units)

188. Co-op Education

Integration of classroom study and practical experience in a planned program designed to give students practical work experience related to their academic field of study and career objectives. The course alternates (or parallels) periods of classroom study with periods of training in industry or government. Satisfactory completion of the assignment includes preparation of a summary report on co-op activities. P/NP grading. May be taken twice. May not be taken for graduate credit. (2 units)

189. Co-op Technical Report

Credit given for a technical report on a specific activity such as a design or research project, etc., after completing the co-op assignment. Letter grades based on content and presentation quality of report. May be taken twice. May not be taken for graduate credit. Prerequisite: ELEN 188. Approval of department co-op advisor required. (2 units)

192. Introduction to Senior Design Project

Junior preparation for senior project. An introduction to project requirements and participation in the coordination of the senior conference. Tentative project selection. (2 units)

194. Design Project I

Specification of an engineering project, selected with the mutual agreement of the student and the project advisor. Complete initial design with sufficient detail to estimate the effectiveness of the project. Initial draft of the project report. Co-requisite: ENGL 181. (2 units)

195. Design Project II

Continued design, construction, and testing of the project, system, or device. Demonstration of project and formal design review. Prerequisite: ELEN 194. (2 units)

196. Design Project III

Continued design, construction, and testing of the project, system, or device. Formal public presentation of results. Final report. Prerequisite: ELEN 195. (1 unit)

199. Directed Research/Reading

Investigation of an approved engineering problem and preparation of a suitable project report. Open to electrical engineering majors only. (1-6 units)

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