Food and Climate Justice Publications
Christopher Bacon has helped to develop the field of agroecology, including describing the role of participatory action research in helping farmers to develop a more sustainable and just global agrifood system.
Bacon, C.M., M.E. Flores Gomez, V. Shin, G. Ballardo, S. Kriese, E. McCurry, E. Martinez, and M. Rivas (in review). Beyond the Bean: Diversified Farming in Relation to Food Security and Dietary Diversity. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems.
Guzmán A.L. Bacon, C.M.,, V. E. Méndez, M-E. Flores Gómez, Anderzén, J., Mier y Terán, M.,Hernández, J. Rivas, M. Alberto Duarte, H. Benavides, A. (Forthcoming ) Towards transformative agroecology: Participatory Action Research (PAR) and Diversification with farmers and members of coffee cooperatives in Mexico and Nicaragua. Frontiers in Sustainable Food System.
Bacon, C. M. (2021/2022). Agroecology and Participatory Action Research for Food and Water Justice in Central America. Promotio Iustitiae, 132, 48-54.
Méndez, V. E., Bacon, C. M., Cohen, R., & Gliessman, S. R. (Eds) (2015). Agroecology: A transdisciplinary, participatory and action-oriented approach. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Chappell M.J., H. Wittman, C.M. Bacon, B.G. Ferguson, L. García-Barrios, R. García-Barrios, D. Jaffee, J. Lima, V.E. Méndez, H. Morales, L. Soto-Pinto, J. Vandermeer & I. Perfecto (2013). Food sovereignty: An alternative paradigm for poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation in Latin America. F1000Research, 2:235.
Kremen, C. Iles, A. and C.M. Bacon (Eds) (2012). Diversified farming systems: An agroecological, systems-based alternative to modern industrial agriculture. Ecology and Society 17(4): 44.
Bacon, C. M., Méndez, V. E., Gliessman, S. R., Goodman, D., & Fox, J. A. (Eds.) (2008). Confronting the coffee crisis: Fair trade, sustainable livelihoods and ecosystems in Mexico and Central America. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bacon, C., Méndez, V.E., & Brown, M. (2005) Participatory action research and support for community development and conservation: Examples from shade coffee landscapes of El Salvador and Nicaragua. Santa Cruz, CA: Center for Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems (CASFS), University of California. Santa Cruz. Retrieved from http://repositories.cdlib.org/casfs/rb/brief_no6/
Gliessman, S. R., Guadarrama-Zugasti, C., Mendez, V. E., Trujillo, L., Bacon, C., & Cohen, R. (2004). Agroecología: Un enfoque sustentable de la agricultura ecológica. Sevilla, Spain: Universidad Internacional de Andalucia.
- Farmer Food Security, Vulnerability, and Resilience to Global Change
Christopher Bacon, Iris Stewart-Frey, Ed Maurer, William Sundstrom and colleagues from the US and Central America have coordinated several community-based action research projects to analyze strategies that small-scale farmers could use to eliminate hunger and improve access to safe water as they face climate change and other hazards. Funding is from the National Science Foundation and Agropolis Foundation.
Bacon, C. M., Sundstrom, W. A., Stewart, I. T., Maurer, E., & Kelley, L. C. (2021). Towards smallholder food and water security: Climate variability in the context of multiple livelihood hazards in Nicaragua. World Development, 143, 105468.
Bacon, C. M., Sundstrom, W. A., Stewart, I. T., & Beezer, D. (2017). Vulnerability to cumulative hazards: Coping with the coffee leaf rust outbreak, drought, and food insecurity in Nicaragua. World Development, 93, 136-152.
Bacon, C. M., Sundstrom, W. A., Gómez, M. E. F., Méndez, V. E., Santos, R., Goldoftas, B., & Dougherty, I. (2014). Explaining the ‘hungry farmer paradox’: Smallholders and fair trade cooperatives navigate seasonality and change in Nicaragua's corn and coffee markets. Global Environmental Change, 25, 133-149.
Maurer, E. P., Roby, N., Stewart-Frey, I. T., & Bacon, C. M. (2017). Projected twenty-first-century changes in the Central American mid-summer drought using statistically downscaled climate projections. Regional Environmental Change, 17(8), 2421-2432.
Bacon, C.M., L. C. Kelley, and I. T. Stewart. (2022). Toward a feminist political ecology of household food and water security during drought in northern Nicaragua. Ecology and Society 27(1):16.
Bacon, C.M. Sundstrom, W. Stewart, IT., Maurer, E. and Kelley, L. (2021). Towards Smallholder Food and Water Security: Climate Variability in the Context of Multiple Livelihood Hazards in Nicaragua. World Development.143, 105468.
- Governance and Socio-Environmental Impacts of Fair Trade and Organic Coffee
Christopher Bacon has conducted extensive community-based participatory research on fair trade coffee certifications and their implications for smallholder farmers in Latin America.
Bacon, C. M. (2015). Food sovereignty, food security and fair trade: The case of an influential Nicaraguan smallholder cooperative. Third World Quarterly, 36(3), 469-488.
Bacon, C. M., Rice, R. A., & Maryanski, H. (2015). Fair trade coffee and environmental sustainability in Latin America. In L. T. Raynolds & E. A. Bennett, Handbook of Research on Fair Trade (pp. 388-404). Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Bacon, C.M. (2010). Who decides what is fair in Fair Trade: Agri-environmental governance of standards, access and price. Journal of Peasant Studies 37(1): 111–147.
Méndez, V. E., Bacon, C. M., Olson, M., Stillings, K. S., & Shattuck, A. K. (2010). Agrobiodiversity conservation and shade coffee smallholder livelihoods in Central America. Professional Geographer. 62(3): 357–376.
Méndez, V. E., Bacon, C. M., Olson, M., Petchers, S., Herrador, D., Carranza, C., ... & Mendoza, A. (2010). Effects of Fair Trade and organic certifications on small-scale coffee farmer households in Central America and Mexico. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 25(3), 236-251.
Bacon, C. M., Ernesto Mendez, V., Gómez, M. E. F., Stuart, D., & Flores, S. R. D. (2008). Are sustainable coffee certifications enough to secure farmer livelihoods? The Millenium Development Goals and Nicaragua's Fair Trade cooperatives. Globalizations, 5(2), 259-274.
Bacon, C. (2005). Confronting the coffee crisis: Can fair trade, organic, and specialty coffees reduce small-scale farmer vulnerability in northern Nicaragua? World Development, 33(3), 497-511.
Rhiney, K., Guido, Z., Knudson, C., Avelino, J., Bacon, C. M., Leclerc, G., Aime, M.A. Bebber, D. P. (2021). Epidemics and the future of coffee production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(27)
Kelley, L.C., Pitcher, L. and Bacon, C.M., (2018). Using Google Earth Engine to Map Complex Shade-Grown Coffee Landscapes in Northern Nicaragua. Remote Sensing, 10(6).
- Environmental and Food Justice in California
Christopher Bacon and Gregory Baker published the first study that maps private food assistance from soup kitchens and food pantries to community needs.
Bacon, C. M., & Baker, G. A. (2017). The rise of food banks and the challenge of matching food assistance with potential need: Towards a spatially specific, rapid assessment approach. Agriculture and Human Values, 34(4), 899-919.
- Mapping School Gardens and Equity
Iris Stewart-Frey has examined disparities in school gardens.
Stewart, I. T., Purner, E. K., & Guzmán, P. D. (2013). Socioeconomic disparities in the provision of school gardens in Santa Clara County, California. Children Youth and Environments, 23(2), 127-153.