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Lu, Bill

Biography

Dr. Lu obtained his MD in medicine and Ph.D. in Biochemistry and Human Genetics. His research interests center on finding innovative solutions to the most difficult to treat human diseases using genetic tools. He works with premed students to achieve their career goals.

Education
  • MD. Shanghai Medical University, Clinical Medicine
  • Ph.D. University of Manitoba, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics
  • BS. University of Manitoba, Computer Sciences
Honors & Awards:
  • Technology Innovation Award, System Bioscience LLC, USA
  • Distinguished Ph.D. Dissertation Award, University of Manitoba, Canada
  • National Research Award, Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation, USA
  • Outstanding Research and Education Award, Fudan University, China
  • Young Investigator Award, Chinese Association of Pathophysiology, China
Courses Taught:
  • Undergraduate: Molecular and Cell Biology (BIOE22); Physiology and Anatomy for Engineers (BIOE171); Senior Design Project (BIOE194/195/196)
  • Graduate: Genome Engineering and Bioinformatics (BIOE263); Protein Engineering and Therapeutics (BIOE301); Gene and Cell Therapy (BIOE302); Master’s Thesis Research (BIOE397)
Academic Achievements:
  • Published over 60 research articles and book chapters
  • Filed 4 patents
  • Editorial board members
  • Ad hoc reviewers
Research Expertise:
  • Nano-vesicle for drug delivery: Development of cell-derived nano-vesicle for applications such as vesicle trafficking and imaging, drug delivery, targeted therapy. Pioneer in vesicle engineering for drug loading and tissue targeting. An inventor in genetic modification of nano-vesicle for the treatment of human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular and neuronal disorders.
  • Genome engineering and gene therapy: Developed genome editing tools (TALEN, Cas-9, Cre-LoxP, and homologous recombinant vectors) for manipulating DNA sequences in living human cells. These technological tools are distributed world wide.
  • Molecular sensor and high throughput applications: Development of novel and advanced genetic systems such as a molecular circuit for signaling sensing, drug screening, and environmental and toxicity studies.
  • Molecular imaging and vesicular trafficking: Development of genetically encoded reporters for live-cell imaging and vesicular trafficking in human cells using an advanced confocal microscope and fluorescence-activated cell sorter.
Career Highlights:
  • Cancer researcher at UCSF
  • Medical intern in New York
  • Senior scientist, R&D Biotechnology in Bay Area  

Publications

Selected Peer Reviewed Articles 

  1. Jiayi Zhang, Daniel Levy, Mai Anh Do, Zach Ehlinger, Anja Beard, Gerard Marriott, and Lu B (2022) Viral envelope glycoproteins incorporate into and functionalize extracellular vesicles. (in preparation)
  2. Jiayi Zhang, Annie Brown, Brendan Johnson, Gerard Marriott, and Lu B (2022) Mechanisms underlying surface engineering of extracellular vesicles via transmembrane scaffolds in living human cells (in preparation)
  3. Lu B, Joy Ku; Renceh Flojo, Chris Olson, David Bengford and Gerard Marriott (2022). Exosome- and Extracellular vesicle-based approaches for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. (Tier 1; IF 15.47, ranking it 4 out of 275 in Pharmacology & Pharmacy). Available online 22 July 2022, In Press, Journal Pre-proof. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2022.114465
  4. Annie Brown, Jiayi Zhang, Brendan Lawler and Lu B (2021) Recapture lysosomal enzyme deficiency via targeted gene disruption in human haploid cell line. Genes (Tier 2; IF 4.141) .12:1076.
  5. Daniel Levy, Mai An Do, Jiayi Zhang, Annie Brown and Lu B (2021) Orchestrating extracellular vesicle with dual reporters for imaging and capturing in mammalian cell culture. Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences (Tier 1; IF 6.113). 8:680580. doi: 10.3389/fmolb.2021.680580
  6. Duong N, Do M, Levy D, Brown A, Marriott G, Lu B (2020) Sequential deletion of CD63 reveals critical domains for exosome targeting and surface engineering. Nanoscale (Tier 1; IF 8.307) 12:12014-12026 
  7. Levy D, Do M, Brown A, Asano K, Diebold D, Zhang J, Chen H, Lawler B, Lu B (2020). Stable labeling of exosomes for real-time monitoring of their biogenesis and uptake in living mammalian cells. Methods in Enzymology (Tier 1; IF 1.682) 645:1-14
  8. Levy D, Do M, Brown A, Marriott G, Lu B (2019) Genetically engineered exosomes for targeted delivery of lysosomal enzymes to the endocytic compartment in human cells. Scientific Reports (Tier 1; IF 4.379) 9:17274
  9. Duong N, Curley K, Brown A, Campanelli A, Do M, Levy D, Tantry A, Marriott G, Lu B (2019) Decoy exosome as a novel biologic reagent for antagonizing inflammation. International Journal of Nanomedicine (Tier 1; IF 6.86). 14:3413-3425
  10. Duong N, Curley K, Do M, Levy D, Lu B (2019) A novel genetic circuit supports laboratory automation and high throughput monitoring of inflammatory response in living human cells. In “Cell Signaling-Thermodynamics and Molecular Control” INTECH Open. Page 25-43.
  11. Sengupta R, Mendenhall A, Sarkar N, Mukherjee C, Afshari A, Huang J, Lu B (2017) Viral Cre-LoxP tools aid genome engineering in mammalian cells. Journal of Biological Engineering. (Tier 1; IF 4.355)11:45. 
  12. Zhang Z, Stickney Z, Duong N, Curley K, Lu, B (2017) AAV-based dual-reporter circuit for monitoring cell signaling in living human cells. Journal of Biological Engineering.11:18.
  13. Meyer C, Losacco J, Stickney Z, Li L, Marriott G, Lu B (2017) Pseudotyping exosomes for enhanced protein delivery in mammalian cells. International Journal of Nanomedicine. (Tier 1; IF 6.86) 12:3153-3170
  14. Yu L, Batara J, and Lu B. (2016) Application of genome editing technology to microRNA research in mammals. In “Gene Correction Technology” edited by MK, INTECH Open. Page 163-185.
  15. Zachary Stickney, Joseph Losacco, Sophie McDevitt, Zhiwen Zhang, Lu B (2016) Development of exosome surface display technology in living human cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 472(1):53-59
  16. Sengupta R, Mukherjee C, Sarkar N, Sun Z, Lesnik J, Huang J and Lu B (2016) An optimized protocol for packaging pesudotyped integrase defective lentivirus. Biol Proced Online. 18:4.
  17. Afshari A, Uhde-Stone C, Lu B (2015) A cooled CCD camera-based protocol provides an effective solution for in vitro monitoring of luciferase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 458(3):543-8.
  18. Uhde-Stone C, Sarkar N, Antes T, Otoc N, Kim Y, Jiang YJ, Lu B (2014) A TALEN-based strategy for efficient bi-allelic miRNA ablation in human cells. RNA. 20(6):948-55
  19. Afshari A, Uhde-Stone C, Lu B (2014) Live visualization and quantification of pathway signaling with dual fluorescent and bioluminescent reporters. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 448(3):281-6.
  20. Uhde-Stone C, Cheung E, Lu B (2014) TALE activators regulate gene expression in a position- and strand-dependent manner in mammalian cells." Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 443(4):1189-94.
  21. Uhde-Stone C, Gor NL, Chin T, Huang J, Lu B (2013) A do-it-yourself protocol for simple TALE assembly. Biol Proced Online. 15(1):3.
  22. Uhde-Stone C, Huang J, Lu B (2012) A robust dual reporter system to visualize and quantify gene expression mediated by transcription activator-like effectors. Biol Proced Online. 14(1):8.
  23. Lu B, Xu FY, Taylor WA, Feingold KR, Hatch GM. (2011) Cardiolipin synthase-1 mRNA expression does not correlate with endogenous cardiolipin synthase enzyme activity in vitro and in vivo in Mammalian lipopolysaccharide models of inflammation. Inflammation. 34(4):247-54.
  24. Maggie Fong, Jake Lesnik, Gang Li, Travis J. Antes, Lu B. Cyto-Tracers™: Novel lentiviral-based molecular imaging tools. BioTechniques. 49(5):839-840
  25. Lu B, Jiang YJ, Kim P, Moser A, Elias PM, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. (2010) Expression and regulation of GPAT isoforms in cultured human keratinocytes and rodent epidermis. J Lipid Res. 51(11):3207-16.
  26. Jiang YJ, Lu B, Tarling E, Kim P, Man M, Edwards PA, Elias PM, Feingold KR. (2010) Regulation of ABCG1 expression in human keratinocytes and murine epidermis. J Lipid Res. 51:3185-95
  27. Jiang YJ, Barish G, Lu B, Evans RM, Crumrine D, Schmuth M, Elias PM, Feingold KR. (2010) PPARδ activation promotes stratum corneum formation and epidermal permeability barrier development during late gestation. J Invest Dermatol. 130(2):511-9.
  28. Lu, B, Moser, A., Shigenaga, J.K., Grunfeld, C., and Feingold, K.R. (2010) The acute phase response stimulates the expression of angiopoietin like protein 4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 391:1737-41. 
  29. Jiang, Y.J., Uchida, Y., Lu, B, Kim, P., Mao, C., Akiyama, M., Elias, P.M., Holleran, W.M., Grunfeld, C., and Feingold, K.R. (2009) Ceramide stimulates ABCA12 expression via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} in human keratinocytes. J Biol Chem 284:18942-18952.
  30. Jiang, Y.J., Lu, B, Crumrine, D., Man, M.Q., Elias, P.M., and Feingold, K.R. (2009) IL-1alpha accelerates stratum corneum formation and improves permeability barrier homeostasis during murine fetal development. J Dermatol Sci 54:88-98.
  31. Jiang, Y.J., Lu, B, Crumrine, D., Elias, P.M., and Feingold, K.R. (2009). IL-6 Stimulates but is not essential for stratum corneum formation and permeability barrier development during gestation. Exp Dermatol. 19(8):e31-6.
  32. Jiang, Y.J., Barish, G., Lu, B, Evans, R.M., Crumrine, D., Schmuth, M., Elias, P.M., and Feingold, K.R. (2009) PPARdelta activation promotes stratum corneum formation and epidermal permeability barrier development during late gestation. J Invest Dermatol 130:511-519.
  33. Lu, B., Lu, Y., Moser, A.H., Shigenaga, J.K., Grunfeld, C., and Feingold, K.R. (2008). LPS and proinflammatory cytokines decrease lipin-1 in mouse adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295:E1502-1509.
  34. Jiang, Y.J., Lu, B., Kim, P., Paragh, G., Schmitz, G., Elias, P.M., and Feingold, K.R. (2008) PPAR and LXR activators regulate ABCA12 expression in human keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol 128:104-109.
  35. Van, Q., Liu, J., Lu, B., Feingold, K.R., Shi, Y., Lee, R.M., and Hatch, G.M. (2007) Phospholipid scramblase-3 regulates cardiolipin de novo biosynthesis and its resynthesis in growing HeLa cells. Biochem J 401:103-109.
  36. Lu, B., Sims, P.J., Wiedmer, T., Moser, A.H., Shigenaga, J.K., Grunfeld, C., and Feingold, K.R. (2007) Expression of the phospholipid scramblase (PLSCR) gene family during the acute phase response. Biochim Biophys Acta 1771:1177-1185.
  37. Lu, B., Xu, F.Y., Jiang, Y.J., Choy, P.C., Hatch, G.M., Grunfeld, C., and Feingold, K.R.(2006) Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding human cardiolipin synthase. J Lipid Res 47:1140-1145.
  38. Lu, B., Moser, A.H., Shigenaga, J.K., Feingold, K.R., and Grunfeld, C. (2006) Type II nuclear hormone receptors, coactivator, and target gene repression in adipose tissue in the acute-phase response. J Lipid Res 47:2179-2190.
  39. Jiang, Y.J., Lu, B., Kim, P., Elias, P.M., and Feingold, K.R. (2006) Regulation of ABCA1 expression in human keratinocytes and murine epidermis. J Lipid Res 47:2248-2258.
  40. Lu B, Elias PM, and Feingold KR. (2006) The role of the primary cytokines, TNF, IL-1, and IL-6 in permeability barrier homeostasis. In “Skin Barrier”. Edited by PM Elise and KR Feingold, editors. Taylor & Francis Group, New York. Page 305-318.
  41. Webster, J., Jiang, J.Y., Lu, B., Xu, F.Y., Taylor, W.A., Mymin, M., Zhang, M., Minuk, G.Y., and Hatch, G.M. (2005) On the mechanism of the increase in cardiolipin biosynthesis and resynthesis in hepatocytes during rat liver regeneration. Biochem J 386:137-143.
  42. Lu, B., Jiang, Y.J., Zhou, Y., Xu, F.Y., Hatch, G.M., and Choy, P.C. (2005) Cloning and characterization of murine 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferases and their regulation by PPARa in murine heart. Biochem J 385:469-477.
  43. Lu, B., Jiang, Y.J., Man, M.Q., Brown, B., Elias, P.M., and Feingold, K.R. (2005). Expression and regulation of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol- 3-phosphate acyltransferases in the epidermis. J Lipid Res 46:2448-57.
  44. Lu, B., Kelher, M.R., Lee, D.P., Lewin, T.M., Coleman, R.A., Choy, P.C., and Hatch, G.M. (2004). Complex expression pattern of the Barth syndrome gene product tafazzin in human cell lines and murine tissues. Biochem Cell Biol 82:569-576.
  45. Lu, B., Jiang, Y.J., and Choy, P.C. (2004). 17-Beta estradiol enhances prostaglandin E2 production in human U937-derived macrophages. Mol Cell Biochem 262:101-110.
  46. Jiang, Y.J., Lu, B., Xu, F.Y., Gartshore, J., Taylor, W.A., Halayko, A.J., Gonzalez, F.J., Takasaki, J., Choy, P.C., and Hatch, G.M. (2004). Stimulation of cardiac cardiolipin biosynthesis by PPARalpha activation. J Lipid Res 45:244-252.
  47. Lu B and Choy PC. (2004) Modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in monocytes and myocytes. In “Pathophysiology of Cardiovascular Disease”. Edited by N.S Dhalla, H. Rupp, A, Angel, and GN Pierce, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston. Page 329-340.
  48. Peng, B., Lu, B., Leygue, E., and Murphy, L.C. (2003). Putative functional characteristics of human estrogen receptor-beta isoforms. J Mol Endocrinol 30:13-29.
  49. Jiang, Y.J., Xu, T.R., Lu, B., Mymin, D., Kroeger, E.A., Dembinski, T., Yang, X., Hatch, G.M., and Choy, P.C. (2003). Cyclooxygenase expression is elevated in retinoic acid-differentiated U937 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1633:51-60.
  50. Jiang, Y.J., Lu, B., Choy, P.C., and Hatch, G.M. (2003) Regulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 expression by PMA, TNFalpha, LPS and M-CSF in human monocytes and macrophages. Mol Cell Biochem 246:31-38.
  51. Emberley, E., Huang, G.J., Hamedani, M.K., Czosnek, A., Ali, D., Grolla, A., Lu, B., Watson, P.H., Murphy, L.C., and Leygue, E. (2003) Identification of new human coding steroid receptor RNA activator isoforms. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 301:509-515.
  52. Lu, B., Leygue, E., Dotzlaw, H., Murphy, L.J., and Murphy, L.C. (2000) Functional characteristics of a novel murine estrogen receptor-beta isoform, estrogen receptor-beta 2. J Mol Endocrinol 25:229-242.
  53. Murphy, L. C., E. Leygue, H. Dotzlaw, G.J. Huang, Lu B, Huang A, and Watson PH. (2000). Multiple facets of estrogen receptor in human breast cancer. In “Contemporary Endocrinology: Endocrine Oncology”. Edited by S. P. Ethier. Humana Press Inc. Totowa. Page 17-34.
  54. Lu, B., Dotzlaw, H., Leygue, E., Murphy, L.J., Watson, P.H., and Murphy, L.C. (1999) Estrogen receptor-alpha mRNA variants in murine and human tissues. Mol Cell Endocrinol 158:153-161.
  55. Johnston, S.R., Lu, B., Scott, G.K., Kushner, P.J., Smith, I.E., Dowsett, M., and Benz, C.C. (1999) Increased activator protein-1 DNA binding and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activity in human breast tumors with acquired tamoxifen resistance. Clin Cancer Res 5:251-256.
  56. Lu, B., Liang, X., Scott, G.K., Chang, C.H., Baldwin, M.A., Thomas, T., and Benz, C.C. (1998) Polyamine inhibition of estrogen receptor (ER) DNA-binding and ligand-binding functions. Breast Cancer Res Treat 48:243-257.
  57. Lu, B., Leygue, E., Dotzlaw, H., Murphy, L.J., Murphy, L.C., and Watson, P.H. (1998) Estrogen receptor-beta mRNA variants in human and murine tissues. Mol Cell Endocrinol 138:199-203.
  58. Liang, X., Lu, B., Scott, G.K., Chang, C., Baldwin, M., and Benz, C. (1998) Oxidant stress impaired DNA-binding of estrogen receptor from human breast cancer. Mol Cell Endocrinol 146:151-161.
  59. Leygue, E., Dotzlaw, H., Lu, B., Glor, C., Watson, P.H., and Murphy, L.C. (1998) Estrogen receptor beta: mine is longer than yours? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:3754-3755.
  60. Johnston, S.R., Lu, B., Dowsett, M., Liang, X., Kaufmann, M., Scott, G.K., Osborne, C.K., and Benz, C.C. (1997) Comparison of estrogen receptor DNA binding in untreated and acquired antiestrogen-resistant human breast tumors. Cancer Res 57:3723-3727.

Selected Conference Publications

  1. Annie Brown and Lu B (2022) Loading lysosomal enzyme beta-glucocerebrosiase onto exosomes via CD63. May 25~29, 2022. ISEV 2022 Annual Meeting Lyon, France.
  2. Annie Brown and Lu B (2022) Treatment of Gaucher disease using beta-glycocerebrosidase-loaded exosomes. 3rd International Conference on Lymphocyte Engineering. March 31~April 2, 2022. Munich, Germany.
  3. Annie Brown, Brandon Lawler, Jiayi Zhang, Lu B (2022) CRISPR-engineered Gaucher’s model provides a powerful tool to evaluate the safety and efficacy of protein replacement therapy and nanomedicine. 3rd International Conference on Lymphocyte Engineering. March 31~April 2, 2022. Munich, Germany.
  4. Annie Brown, Jiayi Zhang, Brendan Lawler, Lu B. (2020) Utilizing Gaucher’s disease cell lines for the evaluation of a novel exosome-based replacement therapy. Annual Meeting ISEV 2020, 20-24 July Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  5. Kyle Asano, David Diebold, Lu B. (2019) Targetd drug delivery to neural cells with engineered exosomes. BMES Oct 16-19 2019, Philadelphia
  6. Daniel Levy, Mai Anh Do, Brown A, Lu B. (2019) Engineering cell-derived nano-scale exosomes for anti-inflammation, immune modulation and cancer therapy. International Conference on Lymphocyte Engineering 2019. London England
  7. Zachery Ehlinger, Anna Beard, Daniel Levy, Mai Anh Do, Lu B. (2019) Engineering nanoscale exosomes for targeted delivery of imaging and therapeutic reagents to hematopoietic stem cells. 2019 TechConnect World Innovation Conference and Expo. The Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts U.
  8. Daniel Levy, Mai Anh Do, Lu B (2018) Surface engineering of exosomes for the treatment of cancer and hereditary disease. ISEV International Society for Extracellular Vesicle Workshop: EV-based Clinical Theranostics. Guangzhou, China
  9. Daniel Levy, Mai Anh Do, Lu B. (2018) Lymphocyte-specific delivery of protein therapeutics by genetically engineered exosomes. International Conference on Lymphocyte Engineering 2018. Madrid, Spain.
  10. Lu B. Identification of critical domain of CD63 for exosome targeting and anchoring. (2018)1st Annual Bay Area Exosome Research Festival. ExoFest 2018. San Francisco, USA
  11. Mai Anh Do, Daniel Levy, Lu B. (2018) Delivery of lysosomal enzymes via engineered exosomes. 1st Annual Bay Area Exosome Research Festival. ExoFest 2018. San Francisco, USA
  12. Levy D, Do MA, Lu B. (2018) Nanoscale exosome imaging and capture in living human cells. 46th Electronic Materials Symposium. Santa Clara, USA
  13. Do MA, Levy D, Lim S, Duong N, Curley K, Ling G, Lu B. (2018) Surface display of chimeric proteins for exosome tracking and capturing in mammalians. Translation Sciences- 2018. Marriott Wardman Park, Washington DC, USA
  14. Duong N, Stickney Z, Ling G, Lim S, Lu B (2017) Sequential deletion of CD63 reveals critical domains for exosome targeting and surface engineering. 5th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Exosomes & Microvesicles. Pacific Grove, California, USA
  15. Lim S, Duong N, Curley K, Do MA, Ling G, Lu B. (2017) Engineering dual-tagged transmembrane reporters for exosome tracking. European Medical and Clinical Congress. Stockholm Sweden
  16. Conary Meyer, Joseph Losacco, Zackary Stickney, Natalie Duong, Grace Ling, Lu B. (2016) Engineering of Exosomes for Enhanced Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. World Congress of Gene. Shanghai, China 
  17. Zachary Stickney, Joseph Losarco, Lu B. (2016) Molecular Engineering of Mammalian Cell-derived Nanoparticles. BIT’s 6th Annual World Congress of Nano Science & Technology. Singapore
  18. Li G, Chin T, Sarkar N, Ranjita S, Antes T, Huang J, Lu B (2011) Reprogramming Consortium: Tools for generating patient-specific tissues. Cell Symposia. Stem Cell Programming & Reprogramming. Lisbon, Portugal
  19. Lu B and Joseph Hwang. (2011) Minicircle DNA Vaccine: An Efficient, Safe and Versatile DNA Vaccine Vector System. The International Society of DNA Vaccines. San Diego, California
  20. Sun D, Lu B, Razvi E, Li G. (2011) Generation of human disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells. 9th Annual Meeting of International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR). Toronto, Canada
  21. Fong M, Lesnik J, Li G, Antes TJ, and Lu B (2010) Cyto-Tracers™: Novel lentiviral-based molecular imaging tools. BioTechniques, 49: 839–840
  22. Lu B, Gong YW, Hatch GM, and Choy PC. (2003) Complex expression pattern of the Barth syndrome gene TAZ in human and murine tissues. 2rd HUPO and International Congress of Biochemistry & XIX Molecular Biology. Montreal, Canada.
  23. Lu B, Jiang YJ, Chan M, and Choy P. (2003) Identification and characterization of aclytransferases in glycerol lipid biosynthesis. Experimental Biology. April 11-15, 2003. San Diego, USA.
  24. Lu B, Leygue E, Dotzlaw H, and Murphy LC. (1999) Putative function of a novel mouse estrogen receptor-beta isoform: estrogen receptor-beta2. 81th Endocrinology Society Annual Meeting. San Diego, USA.
  25. Lu B, Leygue E, Dotzlaw H, and Murphy LC. (1999) Estrogen receptor-β variants in breast tissue. Breast Cancer Research: Reasons for Hope National Conference. Toronto, Canada. (P2-39).
  26. Lu B, Leygue E, Dotzlaw H, Murphy LJ, Watson P, and Murphy LC. (1998) Estrogen receptor-alpha, estrogen receptor-beta mRNA variants in human and murine tissues: species differences. 80th Endocrinology Society Annual Meeting. New Orleans, USA. p237.
  27. Murphy LC, Leygue E, Dotzlaw H, Lu B, Huang A, and Watson P. (1998) Multiple facets of estrogen receptor in breast cancer. Keystone Symposium on Breast and Prostate Cancer. Canada.
  28. Johnston SRD, Lu B, Scott GK, and Benz CC. (1997) Increased Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and AP-1 DNA-binding in human breast tumors with acquired tamoxifen resistance. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 46:83.
  29. Lu B, Johnston SRD, Scott GK, Kushner PJ, Dowsett M, and Benz CC. (1997) Increased AP-1 DNA-binding in tamoxifen-resistant human breast tumors. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Cancer Res. 38:2920.
  30. Lu B, Baldwin M, Chang CH, Scott GK, and Benz CC. (1996) Altered estrogen receptor structure associated with loss of ER DNA-binding function. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 41:24.
  31. Erny KM, Lu B, Osborne CK, and Benz CC. (1996) Elf-1, an Ets proto-oncogene expressed in human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 41:269.
  32. Johnston SRD, Lu B, Liang X, Kaufmann M, Scott GK, Dowsett M, and Benz CC. (1996). DNA-binding estrogen receptors in breast tumors with acquired resistance to tamoxifen: comparison with biomarkers (PR, pS2) predictive of tamoxifen response Proc. Amer. Assoc. Cancer Res. 37:237.
  33. Lu B, Liang X, Scott GK, Chang CH, and Benz CC. (1995) Modulation of estrogen receptor DNA binding by polyamines. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 37(Suppl.):106.
  34. Liang X, Lu B, Dollbaum C, Kaufmann M, Luce M, and Benz CC. (1995) Oxidative loss of ER DNA binding in human breast tumors. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Cancer Res. 36:255.
  • Bioengineering undergraduate Grace Ling and Assistant Professor Bill Lu, M.D., Ph.D., are testing a new method of gene therapy that safely delivers DNA to mutated cells without using viruses for transport, as is the current norm.

    Bill Lu

    Associate Professor, 
    Department of Bioengineering

    Email: blu2@scu.edu