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Markkula Center for Applied Ethics

Disinformation and Democracy

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A Reading List

Irina Raicu and Subramaniam Vincent

Irina Raicu is the director of the Internet Ethics program at the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University. Subramaniam Vincent is the director of the center’s Journalism and Media Ethics program. Views are their own.

Governments, companies, academics, journalists, and individual internet users around the world are struggling to understand and respond to misinformation and disinformation online. The following selection of readings, while by no means exhaustive, is intended primarily as a resource for educators who want to discuss these important topics in their classrooms. But we are all constantly learning about this evolving danger.


How Digital Disinformation Sows Hate, Hurts Democracy: QuickTake
By Shelly Banjo

How To Spot 2020 Election Disinformation
By David Greene with Miles Parks and Lucy Perkins

Disinformation’s Spread: Bots, Trolls and All of Us
By Kate Starbird

The Billion-Dollar Disinformation Campaign to Reelect the President
By McKay Coppins

Who’s ‘Mainly’ Responsible for Curbing Disinformation?
By Cristina Tardáguila, Daniel Funke and Susan Benkelman

You Think You Want Media Literacy… Do You?
By danah boyd

Political Ads Are Flooding Hulu, Roku and Other Streaming Services, Revealing Loopholes in Federal Election Laws
By Tony Romm

Evolving Disinformation Tactics in France: Comparing the 2017 and 2019 CrossCheck Projects
By Seb Cubbon

This Time, It Could Be Worse: 2020 Election Misinformation Will Be Homegrown, And We’re Not Ready for It
By Mark Sullivan: Interview with Renee DiResta

Arizona Now Has a Task Force Focused on Countering Disinformation
By Yael Grauer

Mar 11, 2020

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